The British parliament had passed the Navigation Act in the 17th century as a part of mercantilism. The Act stipulated that only the British ships were permitted to export and import goods in the colonies. The colonists secretly began to trade goods with non-British colonies in the Caribbean. The Navigational Acts were withdrawn in 1849 and the British had to follow the policy of free trade. Sugar Act or the Revenue Act of 1764 was the first tax imposed by the British government over the American colonies. Protest came from colonies especially from Virginia. The protests reached its full momentum with the passage of the Stamp Act in 1765. The Seven Years War, created a huge debt for the British treasury of about 150 million British pounds. The Greenville ministry decided to extract some money from the colonies by the way of Stamp Act. The internal taxes until that time had arisen only from the colonial assemblies. Along with the Stamp Act, the parliament passed the Mutiny Act, which required the colonials to quarter the soldiers. The legislation of the British parliament backfired. The colonists raised the slogan, "No taxation without representation." In 1765, the representatives of the nine colonies met at Newyork at the Stamp Act congress and petitioned King George III and the parliament to repeal the Stamp Act. The British parliament responded by repealing the Stamp Act and passed the Declaratory Act to show their resolve to tax the colonies whenever it was necessary. Sons of Liberty played great role in forming the public opinion against the British. When the Stamp Act was passed, the Liberty boys met in each town under a Liberty tree and burnt the effigies of British officials. Sons of Liberty threatened the royal officials and committed excesses against the colonial governor. They were responsible for the Boston Tea party. Thus the secret organizations were able to undermine the British economy in the colonies. Quartering Act which was passed on June 2, 1765 was an indirect tax on the colonies for protection from the French. The colonists did not consider French as a threat and opposed it. Violence broke out in colonies over the issue and many provinces implemented the provisions of the Quartering Act only for name sake. Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer imposed an external tax on the colonies in 1767 known as the Townshend duties. The colonists who were already encouraged by the success in the Stamp Act had presented a thunderous opposition. The British Parliament acceded to the protests of the British manufacturers who lost terribly due to decline in colonial trade and growth of American industry. Townshend duties were repealed in 1770 except that of tea. In 1773, the parliament passed the Tea Act to save financially troubled East India Company. The colonies feared that it was a step to monopolize the tea trade. The radicals in America believed that the cheaper tea was aimed to get the public support to the taxes already in force. The unpopular Tea Act resulted in the Boston Tea party and the British did not get the desired result. The Committee of Correspondence was an idea developed by Samuel Adams. The committee was responsible for convening the First Continental congress. The committees did a great job of uniting the colonists, informing the new the developments, and help raise opposition against the actions of British crown. An important step in the American Revolution was taken in the First Continental congress. Until then, the colonists opposed the measures of Britain, but now they decided to start an open rebellion against Britain. They claimed that the actions of Britain had violated their natural rights and principles of English constitution. The defeat of Britain was also due to the role of the philosophers. One such philosopher was Thomas Paine who had published a document called Common Sense in 1776. He called upon the colonists to fight for their complete independence from Britain. His philosophy was based on the natural right philosophy of John Locke. Thus we can see that the efforts of Britain to prosper economically was thwarted by the colonists and ultimately led to their downfall.
The causes for the defeat of Britain in the American Revolution had a long history. The British Parliament had passed the Navigation Acts in the 17th century to control the activities of Dutch and prevent from making profits. The theory behind the act was mercantilism. The Act stipulated that only the British ships were per