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Operations Research

Operations research, or management science, is the application of advanced analytical methods in mathematics to complex business decision-making problems. By using mathematical methods, analysts can model business decisions and solve optimization problems (such as profit maximization or cost minimization problems) using linear and nonlinear programming and statistical analysis. These problems are simplified with the use of computer programs such as Excel Solver.

Linear Programming (LP)

Linear programming is concerned with the optimization (minimization or maximization) of a linear function while satisfying a set of linear equalities and/or inequalities (collectively known as constraints). Linear programming in operations research can be applied to a variety of problems.

Resource allocation: The most typical problems in business are resource allocation problems. For example, a common type of resource allocation problem is the problem of product mix, which looks at the optimal mix of products that will maximize profit subject to resource constraints such as limited machine time or a limited quantity of a necessary input. A solution to this problem will also provide other valuable information that may allow the student to identify bottlenecks, find the range over which the unit profit can change without affecting the product mix, identify the marginal benefit of adding additional units of the limited resource, and find the range of quantity over which the availability of the resource can change without affecting the identity of the bottleneck in the system.

Blending: Blending problems are problems that involve finding the optimal blend or mix of ingredients in order to minimize costs and satisfy some additional requirement. For example, crude oil blending allows refineries to mix different crude oil products to achieve some optimal and consistent product. Similarly, ingredients in animal feed stock may be combined in different amounts to achieve some optimal blend that meets minimum nutritional requirements.

Queuing: Queuing models look at resource decisions such as determining optimal inventory levels to minimize costs in the face of fixed ordering costs (such as delivery costs), carrying costs for units on hand, seasonal price fluctuations, and fluctuations in demand (and costs associated with stock outs).

Scheduling: Scheduling problems include problems such as personnel staffing, project tasks, and determining the optimal coverage of sporting events.

Network flow and network optimization: Network flow problems are a special case in linear programming that look at things like transportation or routing problems, critical path analysis (project management), the assignment problem, and other flow problems.

Facility location: Facility location problems look to minimize things like transportation costs, or address other criteria such as taking advantage of price-differentials in the case of low-cost labour in other jurisdictions.  Facility location problems also include problems such as floor planning.

Investment decisions: Linear programming can also be used to solve investment problems such as designing the optimal portfolio to minimize, or hedge, risk.

Nonlinear Programming

Nonlinear programming problems are similar to linear programming problems in that they involve the optimization of an objective function while satisfying a set of equalities and/or inequalities. However, unlike linear programs, nonlinear programs exist where the objective function or some of the constraints are nonlinear. For example, linear problems may become nonlinear problems if one of the cost functions exhibits economies of scale.

Integer Programming

Integer programming refers to linear or nonlinear optimization problems where some of the variables are required to take on discrete values. They can be modeled with binomial variables that take on values of either zero or one. Many business decision problems require integer programming because their variable units must be whole numbers. For example, it would not make sense for a optimal solution to require a company to build half a factory in one location, to produce only one-third of a widget, to keep 20 and 1/8 units of inventory on hand, to hire less than one person, or to route half a bus one way and the other half another. Thus program designers are faced with a finite set of alternatives and face discrete decision problems.

Dynamic Programming

Dynamic programming involves problems that require a sequence of decisions over time, where one decision must follow logically from the preceding outcome. Many investment decisions are modeled using dynamic programming, because sell, hold, or buy decisions can be programmed in the model based on fluctuations in the prices of securities.

Monte Carlo Simulation

Monte Carlo methods involve repeated random sampling in order to obtain variables or outcomes. Therefore, by running the simulation again and again, a computer program can provide results in the form of statistical probabilities. The name derives from the fact that the simulation can be likened to gambling at a casino, recording your winnings, and determining from this information the probability of winning your next hand. 

International Aspect of Business

Select an article published in January 2012 or later that deals with the international aspects of doing business. Must have all of the following parts: - Summary: It must provide the reader a very good idea of what the article is about, even without having read the article. -Thoughts About the Article -References

Annotation of a Quantitative Research Article

Submit the annotation of a quantitative research article on a topic of your interest. •Annotate one quantitative research article from a peer-reviewed journal on a topic of your interest. •Provide the reference list entry for this article in APA Style followed by a three-paragraph annotation that includes: •A summar

Coffee: The Legal King of Colombian Exports

This is not a request for a written paper just points on which to expound on the following: **Identify and discuss social, cultural, and political implications of the development of the coffee export economy

Global Technical Systems versus Department of Navy

File: B-411230.2 Date: September 9, 2015 Instructions: Please analyze the attached Global Technical Systems case and submit a brief using the format below. Briefing can be extensive or short depending on the depth of analysis. A comprehensive brief includes the following: 1. Title and Citation. The title of the case shows

Chocolate and the exploitation of children.

This is not a request for a written paper, just answers to expound on. Should labor practices in another country be a relevant consideration in international trade? Why or why not? 2. With regard to trade in products such as cocoa, what options are available to governments, businesses, and consumers for dealing with pr

Performance Work Statement

Market Research Report For (Program/Command Name) Author: (Name) Report Date: (mm/dd/yyyy) Organization: (Org symbol) Report Title: (Service name) PSC and NAICS Code: (Codes and descriptions) Portfolio: (Knowledge Based Services, Facility Related Services, Equipment Related Services, Electronics & Communicat

Market Research Report for Performance Work Statements

Market Research Report 56 Custom Credits. Read the IDEX Performance Work Statement (PWS). Conduct market research to determine an estimated price for the services identified in the PWS. You may use GSA's Federal Supply Schedules on GSA Advantage for pricing data. GSA is just an example of a source you may use to find prici

Steps to forecasting and how they apply to business methods.

1) Describe in your words the eight steps to forecasting and how they apply to business methods. 2) The decomposition approach to forecasting (using trend and seasonal components) may be helpful when attempting to forecast a time-series. Could an analogous approach be used in a multiple regression analysis? Explain briefly.

Trader Joe: organizational culture, employee motvation

Trader Joe's Read and reflect on the case study about Trader Joe's attached. Consider Joe Coulombe's approach to organizational design, and analyze the effects and applications of the various organizational structures and levels of authority. Given the benefits and motivations mentioned in the case study, share an analysis of T

Research in Business

Locate a peer-reviewed article that discusses research in an organization. Topic ideas might include the role of research, development of research studies, integration of different types of methods, or the communication of research results within an organization. You are also required to locate a second peer-reviewed to

Identify consequences and value benefits using scaled measurement

The use of a utility scale direct approach helps to measure the value of a decision numerically in order of risk probability. The researcher will choose from five considerable job opportunities and identify the objectives used in making the decision. These job opportunities are within institutions of higher education and includ

Sampling Design Proposal

Write a two- to three-page report discussing the sampling design for the proposal. Describe the sampling procedures (convenience, quota, simple random) that will yield the best results for your research objective and justify your rationale for choosing the procedure(s). Include the following information: 1. Research the object

Stakeholder Interests & Management

Stakeholder interests in an organization can be quite varied, and there may be many times when these interests do not coincide. What is the best way for a for-profit organization to manage these conflicting needs? Why?

Short Selling Stocks

How to Short Sell Stocks Abstract The Shanghi Composite Index is at 2722.55 on January 27, 2016, down 17.64% for the past year. The Federal Reserve might raise The Federal Funds Interest rate in March 2016. Crude Oil WTI (NYMEX) closed at $32.80 per barrel on January 27, 2016 down from $37.34 on

Small Business Incremental Stages

As a small business goes international through incremental stages instead of as a global start-up, what unique benefits does it have? Can you identify any obstacles?

Business Plan for Hungry Lion

Need it reviewing and help with: Personal methods of compensation • How you will maintain accounting records and procedures OPERATIONS • Daily management • Hiring and personnel policies • Insurance coverage and leasing agreements • Delivery of products and services

Strategic Evaluation

I need help evaluating Coca-Cola Company's published mission, vision, values, and objectives/goals. Please cite any references. 1. What are the company's vision, mission, values, and goals? 2. According to their official website, what is the company's Mission statement and what does it mean? I need an in-depth analysis of this

Operations Management Outputs

A steel product is manufactured by starting with raw material (carbon steel wire) and then processing it sequentially through five operations using machines A to E, respectively (see table below). This is the only use that the five machines are put to. The hourly rates for each machine are given in the table. Answer the followin

Research Proposal for Main Stage Events

Need Some Help about research proposal Prepare a simple research proposal related to your area outlining the main stages Selecting a topic (about, how the transportation or delivery business is the most beneficial of today business sector, and that's all because of advanced technology like; smart phones, and social media.

Qualitative and Quantitative Research discussion

Respond to following statements 1. Which technique one chooses really should depend on what the question is they are trying to answer. "Qualitative research methodologies have roots in a variety of disciplines. Qualitative research tries to achieve a deeper understanding of the situation. Qualitative research techniques are use

Is Mattel a Learning Organization?

Please describe the extent to which Mattel is a "Learning Organization." How does Mattel "learn"? What has Mattel "learned," and through what mechanism(s)?

Unethical practices in research studies

1. The application of the Institutional Review Board is to determine the level of participant involvement in the researcher's study and select appropriate forms. This involves human subjects, may not involve humans, analysis of secondary data, and analyzes biological specimens." "assistants are expected to carry out the sampling

Human Research : Unethical

When doing research involving human subjects researchers are required to have their proposals reviewed and approved by an Institutional Research Board (sometimes this is named differently). Why might this not be sufficient to address ethical issues with the research? reference Stanford Prison Experiments


I need help understanding the feedback loops in Whole Foods Market. Identify one Balancing Loop and one Reinforcing Loop. Explain each one of these loops. What are the causal factors and how do they affect each other? For the Reinforcing Loop, what is an area where there is growth? For the Balancing Loop, what is an area wit

Stakeholder Discussions

Respond to following statements: 1. To me, the definition of stakeholders has not changed, rather the roles of stakeholders have changed. For instance, as Kotter's article points out, the successful organization of the future will have two organizational structures: a Hierarchy, and a more teaming, egalitarian, and adaptive Net

Business and scientific research

Respond to statements on following: In what ways might business research be different from what is usually thought of as scientific research 1. To me, the primary difference between business and scientific research is that the former happens in an everyday setting, while the latter is done in a more controlled and sterile envir

Nadler-Tushman Model

I need help understanding how Whole Foods fits into the Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model. Below are some questions I have that will help me gain a better understanding of how they operate. Strategy: What is Whole Foods's strategy and classification according to Porter's three generic competitive strategies: Cost Leadership, Di

Lamaze Toys Finals

Compile the revised paper from Lamaze toy problems you have helped me with, formulate a complete 8-10 page research proposal. Please include the appropriate headings for each section of the proposal to help transition the reader and organize the paper. Remember to create your abstract. An abstract is a self-contained, short, and