While there are slight deviations, most countries' laws include the same basic human rights1:
1. Everyone is free and we should all be treated in the same way.
2. Everyone is equal despite differences in skin colour, sex, religion, language for example.
3. Everyone has the right to life and to live in freedom and safety.
4. No one has the right to treat you as a slave nor should you make anyone your slave.
5. No one has the right to hurt you or to torture you.
(25 more here)
These used to be separate and distinct for each country, but with the birth of the United Nations and the construction of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1949 following the horrendous acts against Jews, disabled people, homosexuals etc. in Nazi Germany as well as inhumane acts on POWs, these basic human rights have become much more standardized (the above were taken from an abbrieviated version of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights). As a result of this, they have become enforcable on a global scale, leading to many dilemmas over when governments belonging to the United Nations should or should not step in (for example - at the time of writing, the Syrian government has been accused of using chemical weaponry on their citizens and world leaders are divided on whether or not to intervene).
This is not to say that all human rights violations occur on a global scale - something as simple as an employer discriminating by race in hiring someone with a 'white' name over an ethnic one without regard to qualifications or personal merit also falls under this category and the law takes these domestic situations seriously also.