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Early Modern

The Early Modern period is generally understood as the time from 1450 - 1750 after the late Middle Ages. This period ushered in the modern era of secularism, rationality and individualism. The art and ideas in Europe during the Early Modern age coincided with the rediscovery of Roman and Greek culture².

In 1500, at the cusp of transition between the Middle Ages and Early Modern period, Europe was united under the Church and led by the Pope. By the end of 17th century, much of this way of life had vanished. England had separated itself from Roman religious authority and in addition to the Church of England, Protestantism had created a variety of sects¹.

The Early Modern age contained some critical times in World and Western History. The Renaissance lasted from the 14th to 17th centuries. The Age of Discovery lasted from the 15th to 17th centuries. The Elizabethan era lasted from 1558 - 1603 and the Enlightenment emerged during the 17th and 18th centuries¹.

The Early Modern age changed the Europe’s relationship with learning. Some of the West’s most famous intellectuals emerged during the Early Modern age. Italian physicist Galileo Galilei worked on gravitational force and determined that the laws of nature were mathematical. Nicolaus Copernicus formulated the heliocentric model of the universe which named the Sun, rather than the Earth as the center of the Universe. William Harvey was an English physician who established that body was energized by circulation of blood to and from the heart².

Many of the writers and scholars responsible for this rebirth of a more secular culture are known as humanists - those who studied the humanities. This ethical perspective emphasizes the value and agency that humans have.²  This was a new perspective in religion, culture and academia. This was also evident in the art that flourished in Europe that focused on an idealized human form as well.


1. The Longman Anthology of British Literature Retrieved from
2. The Renaissance: Was it a Thing? - Crash Course World History #22. Retrieved from

Categories within Early Modern


Postings: 42

The Renaissance was the period in Europe from the 14th - 17th centuries characterized by a recovery of ancient Greek and Roman study.

Age of Discovery

Postings: 3

The Age of Discovery lasted from the early 15th - 17th centuries and was marked by Europe's extensive exploration of world by sea to find trade routes.


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The Elizabethan era in Europe is the duration of Queen Elizabeth I's reign from 1558-1603


Postings: 12

The Enlightenment was a period in which Europe had revolutions in science and the social sciences from mid-17th to 18th centuries.

Early Germ Warfare

Please help with Germ warfare on the colonial frontier. I need information that consists of approximately 600 words in which I can use to do additional research. The information is from articles from the journal of American history. Please provide any reference used.

The Peasants' Revolt of 1381

The Peasants' Revolt was one of the historic lower uprising in the history of England. The following are the details of this discussion. 1. The general condition of Britain after the Black Death of 1381 2. Privileges gained to lower class due to the effects of Black death and shortage of labor 3. Attempts of the aristocrat

The Hundred Years' War

In this posting, students will identify the causes of the Hundred Years' War. They will also be able to explain the events lead up to France's successful victory.

The Donation of Constantine

In this posting, students will understand the significance of the Donation of Constantine. Students will also learn of the power struggles between the throne and the church and how the Donation of Constantine impact both the throne and the papacy at the time.

Connections between Culture and Language in Semitic Families

A language family includes two or more languages or subfamilies that are closely related by their forms of grammar and syntax (sentence structure), and by shared vocabularies. To what extent do you think that language and culture are related? Can one suppose that people who speak languages that are in the same language family sh

Changing Nature of Church in the Late Middle Ages

Discuss the changing nature of the church in the late middle ages. Why did the tradition of religious dissent including John Wycliffe, Jan Huss and ultimately Martin Luther culminate in a formal split in the Roman Church?

Classical/Germanic and Christian Heritage

Western civilization is said to be composed of three elements the classical heritage (Greeks), the Germanic heritage (Germans) and the Christian heritage (Romans early church). Discuss the contribution of each of the three using examples.

Role of Religion: The Crusades

What were the attitudes and reasons Christians in the West would be moved to go on a dangerous journey to fight in the Holy Land after hearing Pope Urban's II speech at Clermont in approximately 1095 c.e.? What do we learn about medieval values and the role of religion in that society?

The Age of Confessional Division

During the 16th century, The Age of Confessional Division produced religious wars in France, Spain, and the Netherlands. Choose one of these conflicts and discuss the events, causes, and outcomes.

Byzantine culture

Below is what i'm being asked for but I'm having a hard time trying to determine what the social, political and economical structures were during that time. Compare and contrast the Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire and examine the development of the uniqie Byzantine culture. Discuss this in terms of social, pol

Luther's 95 Theses are addressed.

How do the issues Luther present for debate illustrate the problems in the Church of his day?

Ideas that contributed to the French Revolution.

The French monarchy had been losing the confidence of the French people for many years. French monarchs at least from the time of Louis XIV had been spending extravagantly. They had built lavish palaces, thrown massive banquets and spent small fortunes on numerous mistresses. Meanwhile the common people were struggling to mak

History Question

What factors led to the expansion of trade and re-urbanization of Europe in the eleventh and twelfth centuries?

European History since 1900

What were three of the most important trends or 'isms' affecting European Society at the end of the 19th century? Identify each trend and examine its implications. Identify the nations that went to war in 1914. Explain at least three causes of World War I. What effect did World War One have on the 'European Consciousness'?

Middle ages to French Revolution

The question for my paper is Identify five issues or challenges between the Middle Ages and the French Revolution that will shed light on a contemporary problem faced by society today. Thanks again

Tenets of Islam

What were the tenets of Islam and how were the Muslims suddenly able to build an empire? Assess the importance of the Muslim invasions for the development of Western Europe.

200 Word Essay Help/Roman Empire

How and why was the history of the eastern half of the Roman Empire so different from the western half? What factors contributed to the growth of a distinctive Western European culture?

Magna Carta brought about a "balancing act"

Analyze what caused the Popular Rebellion and how the 1215 Magna Carta brought about a "balancing act" that ended the rebellion and promoted an ideal of feudal government. Why is the Magna Carta considered a cornerstone of modern English law?

Minoan and Mycenean cultures

Compare and contrast in 200 words the Minoan and Mycenean cultures. Discuss the archeological evidence and the clues it provides about these cultures. Discuss both new features and the influences of other cultures.

Greek Gods

Greeks saw the acts of the Gods in everything, even the turnout of the wars. Does this indicate a more primitive society? Are we really greatly different today?