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Business Law

Business law is the field of law that governs how businesses are organized and the rules regarding commercial transactions. It is also the field of law that looks at how laws and regulations impact capital markets, corporate governance, bankruptcy and restructuring, deal-making, taxation, and labor and employee relations. 

Commercial law has its roots in both common law as well as from state and federal government statutes (statutory law). In the United States, state laws make up the bulk of commercial law. However, in many important areas, federal laws are applicable. For example, businesses must adhere to federal securities regulation, environmental regulation, food and drug regulation, national and international intellectual property laws, anti-trust law and labor law.

Common law governs all commercial law that lies outside of government statute. 
For example, contract law is governed by common law, but sales contracts specifically are regulated by the Uniform Commercial Code, which has been generally adopted by all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. territories.

When the government implements a new statute, these new laws trump existing common law. For example, following increased concerns over corporate fraud and the 2008 financial crisis, there have been a number of new government regulations that impact commercial law. These developments include:

(1) Sarbanes Oxley Act (SOX): This 2002 act implemented large changes to the requirements for reporting publically traded corporations as well as the penalties for fraudulent financial activity. Significant attention has been paid to section 404 of the SOX, which requires management to certify the effectiveness of their company's internal controls

(2) Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act: This 2010 law implemented significant changes to the regulation of the financial industry in the United States, following in the footsteps of the Glass-Steagall Act (a reform act that followed the Wall Street crash of 1929).

(3) Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA): This 1998 law looks to bring US copyright law in line with law set out by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) Treaties.

(4) The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010): Often called Obamacare, the Affordable Care Act creates a transparent exchange for insurance plans and provides a number of mechanisms for employers to help comply with the new law, which aims to increase health insurance coverage.

(5) Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: This 1977 law introduced changes to accounting transparency in relation to the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as well as introduced rules regarding the bribery of foreign officials.

These laws look to protect investors, consumers and the American public in the face of an increasingly complex business environment, asymmetrical information, moral hazard and agency costs. However, by adding a new layer of complexity, many critique these laws as increasing compliance costs and hurting business

Legal Office Engineering Department Preventing Incidents

Rarely does one individual's decision or action create an ethical crises entirely by itself. More often, someone's unethical or illegal idea is adopted by other members of the company, and the problem grows within the organization until it erupts in headlines, bad publicity, and sometimes criminal penalties. After the fact, the

IDMS and alpha-spec

Hello, I am looking for about 500 words and some references to describe these particular methods used by the IAEA to confirm the absence of undeclared nuclear activities and material at the different nuclear facilities within the nuclear fuel cycle, particularly just a focus on methods used for Isotopic (IDMS,...) and Particle (


Hello, do you have enough time to help with 2000-2500 words? Need that + 3 or 4 new references. Just trying to finish up my understanding of this topic. If you don't have time, or this is too technical, let me know... "Describe the different verification methods used by the IAEA to confirm the absence of undeclared nuclear

IAEA Nuclear Available Tools

Hello, can you help me with more IAEA stuff? Need 2 or 3 more references and 1200-1500 words to get some understanding of these new bullet points: *Describe the available tools the IAEA is using to effectively implement safeguards measures in those States with integrated safeguards. *Describe the origin, purpose, and impl

the terms Inventory Difference or Material Unaccounted

***Is today enough time?*** *Describe the terms Inventory Difference (ID - U.S. DOE) or Material Unaccounted for (MUF - IAEA) in the context of nuclear safeguards and how it relates to Material Control and Accountancy. What is the impact of uncertainty? Some more depth needed, thank you. 2 or three more refs for last p

Material Control and Accountancy in context nuclear safeguard

Please let me know if you have time. I am still researching this iaea and material control topic. I need about 1500-2000 words or so to help research these four bullet points. 1 reference for each bullet point? *Describe the role and implementation of Material Control and Accountancy in the context of nuclear safeguards.

Still learning about IAEA

Can you describe the IAEA Safeguards System?. Can you briefly discuss and evaluate the different forms of inspections implemented by the IAEA within the framework of the non-proliferation agreement with each state? Also, if you would describe the inspector activities before, during, and after the inspection, that would solidif

International Nuclear Regulation

Just looking for some explanations to learn more about each of these. References needed and appreciated. If the deadline looks acceptable to you, please let me know and I will select you as my only expert. 1. Briefly describe the structure and functioning of the IAEA. 2. Briefly describe the obligations of the NPT on cou

Government Procurement Law

Discuss what he or she thinks are the major acquisition and procurement issues and challenges facing the Federal Government and its industry over the next 5-10 years. Of course, feel free to address this question towards your specific Agency, Department, or Company if desired.

Constitutional and Administrative Law

Using library or Internet resources provide a full citation for each of the following items: State is Georgia and county is Rockdale. 1.Your state's statute that defines what is considered to be a public record that must be made available to the public upon request. 2. The pre-World War I opinion by the U.S. Supreme Court h

Constitutional and Administrative Law

WK 1 DB 1 1. Based upon the "rule of law" and its limits on public administrators, explain why a public administrator should not falsely conclude that they necessarily can alter human behavior merely by passing a law. Morality varies across and within societies and creates many commonalities that are essential to a functioning

Ming versus Roger Ethical Dilemma

Ming is a recent migrant to Australia, having arrived in September 2015. He lives in the Brisbane suburb of Darra with his wife and one month old baby son. Ming was unemployed for six months, but recently obtained a sales assistant role in a local pharmacy run by Roger. Roger told Ming that he is on probation for three months.

Negligent tort, relates to consumer safety and baby monitors

Negligent Tort Visit the Consumer Product Safety Division website. Click on Consumer Safety. Click on Recalls. Choose one product that has been recalled. 1.Describe the product subject to recall, including the recall date, recall number, and the reason for the recall. 2.Analyze whether the manufacturer would be liable for

Professional Responsibility and Attorney-Client Privilege

Explain the difference between the attorney-client privilege and the accountant-client privilege. Why is this an important distinction? Why do you think that the law doesn't provide the same level of privilege for accountants as it does for attorneys? Professional Responsibility As we come to the end of our course, one of

Govt Contractor Defense/Govt Procurement Law

In military equipment design cases dealing with Government furnished specifications, a contractor that has been sued for products liability may raise what is called the "Government Contractor Defense". This defense is quite broad in application as per the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Boyle v. United Technologies (1988), it bar

Business Operations, CPA Advice, Contacts, Liability, & More

You are a new associate at a CPA firm. Your boss has explained that a new client has come to the firm with a small but growing company that makes a granite cleaning product which is sold in several major retail stores. The client has been operating as a sole proprietorship, but now thinks that because of the growth of the compan

State Consumer Protection Law

State Consumer Protection Most states have enacted their own consumer protection laws. These laws vary tremendously from state to state. Identify a consumer protection law in your state and address the following: Analyze the law, its purpose, and what it is aimed to accomplish; Describe the industry that the law a

Consumer, Environmental, and Antitrust Law

Provide an example, with details, of deceptive advertising and explain why this example is deceptive. Additionally, provide an example of advertising that appears to be unreasonable or unethical but in fact is not considered deceptive. How has food and product labelling affected the health and safety of the American consu

Ethical Consideration of Creditors' Rights and Bankruptcy

Address the following ethical questions regarding creditors' rights and bankruptcy: Evaluate how Bankruptcy law can favor debtors at the expense of creditors or vice versa, and explain how a revision to Bankruptcy law can achieve a better balance between the respective interests of creditors and debtors. Explain whet

Bankruptcy: Questions & Issues

How is a security interest created and how is it perfected? Provide an example. If you are the creditor, what is difference between having a perfected security interest and an unperfected interest? What is a "reorganization" bankruptcy and how is it different than an "ordinary" bankruptcy? Give examples of each. In a bankru

Negotiability Instrument Examples

Provide an example of a "negotiable instrument," with specific details, and explain why this instrument meets the requirements of negotiability. Additionally, how would changing one detail of the instrument make it non-negotiable? Does having a smartphone-based payment system entail more or fewer security risks than carryi

Contract of Sales

Prepare a Sales Contract Your client, Widgets, Inc., has a factory in Detroit where they produce widgets for sale. They have recently received a large order from Machines, Inc. in Austin, Texas for 2,000 widgets at $100 per widget. The client has not specified any additional terms of the purchase. Prepare a contract for th

Rogue Bank

Violations of Securities Laws Karel Svoboda, a credit officer for Rogue Bank, evaluated and approved his employer's extensions of credit to clients. These responsibilities gave Svoboda access to nonpublic information about the clients' earnings, performance, acquisitions, and business plans from confidential memos, email, and

Best Type of Acquisition Based on the Possibility of Future Law Suits

A longtime friend and client approaches you and explains that he has the opportunity to purchase a company that has developed a very lucrative technology. Unfortunately, the company has had some legal issues with clients and vendors in the past. Your friend assures you that, going forward, he can resolve the problems that have l

Duty of Care, the Duty of Loyalty, and the Business Judgment

Explain the requirements of the Duty of Care, the Duty of Loyalty, and the Business Judgment rule. Who or what are these duties designed to protect? Are these duties necessary? Why or why not? Use this week's lecture as a basis for your post. Peppertree, Inc., hired Robert McClellan, a licensed contractor, to repair a condom

Five forms of Business

Explain the legal and financial characteristics of each of the five main form of business entities described. Discuss the implications of applicable laws and regulations, for each type of business entity, on how the business is organized, governed, and operated. For each type of business entity, explain the following characteris

Sample Start Up Budget

Inadequate financing can be the cause of the failure of any business. Try to determine how much capital might actually be needed to start a small business. Project a budget covering the expenses. Feel free to use your Dream Job as an example. Initial expenses may include down payments for the pur­chase or lease of prop­e

Piercing the veil

Johnson Trucking, Inc., owned by Pat Johnson, charged its fuel purchases to an account at Juice Express. When Johnson Trucking, Inc. was not paid on several jobs, it was unable to pay amounts owed to Juice. Shortly thereafter, Johnson Trucking, Inc. ceased doing business and was dissolved. However, Pat continued to provide truck

Operating Agreement LLC

Green Properties Group owns, manages, and develops real property. Jones Group, Inc. also develops real property. Green entered into agreements with Jones concerning a large tract of property in Georgia. The parties formed NewGroup, LLC, to develop various parcels of the tract for residential purposes. The operating agreement of

Duties of Director

Roger is a director of a major car manufacturer. This is one of the few remaining car companies yet to introduce a sport utility vehicle. Roger convinces the board to investigate forming a new division to design, build and market a sport utility vehicle. Roger also convinces the board that the first sport utility vehicle that th