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    Case: Evaluation and affect of international trade regulations

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    Violations of import and export laws carry monetary and/or criminal penalties even if the purpose is educational. For an institution like Ross University School of Medicine that is an international medical school, the implications of violating import and export laws would cause detriment to the accreditation of the institution, therefore impact licensing and credentialing of medical students to practice medicine in the U.S. The U.S. import and export restrictions and laws that affect Ross University's business overseas can be categorized as follows: economic sanctions, export controls, antiterrorism, and corrupt practices.

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    Economic Sanctions:

    The U.S. has imposed economic sanctions against certain countries and persons, which prohibits or limits imports, exports and transactions with certain countries. These countries include: Burma (Myanmar), the Balkans (Serbia), Cote d'Ivoire, North Korea, Cuba, Liberia, Iran, Syria, Sudan, and Zimbabwe (George Washington University, 2006). Since Ross University is currently not doing business in either one of these countries, there is not impact. However, Ross University does plan to expand its institution to Brazil, Japan, and United Kingdom. U.S. economic sanctions are generally known as embargoes, which prohibit most imports, exports and transactions with certain countries. Throughout the years, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of Treasury has gone away from broad embargoes to targeted sanctions that focus on the precise nature of the threat to the U.S. For example, the U.S. currently has only three comprehensive embargoes in effect against Cuba, Iran, and Sudan (George Washington University, 2006). This particular import and export law will not affect Ross University's business operations.

    Export Controls:

    Certain exports of technical data, defense articles and defense services may require a license from either the U.S. Department of State or the U.S. Department of Commerce. The release of technology to a foreign national who is in the U.S. is considered a deemed export to the home country of that national. That technology is also subject to any license requirements that would apply to an actual transfer of that technology to that country (George Washington University, 2006). Ross University has student records information which if exposed would violate the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act. The technology systems used at Ross include Banner, Salesforce (web based), and information on the computer system hard drive. This information is also available in Dominica.

    Antiterrorism :

    The general rule for antiterrorism is it's a crime to provide material support to a foreign organization engaged in terrorist activity. Two principal laws, the 1996 Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act and the 2001 USA Patriot Act, make it a crime for the University or an individual to provide material support to a foreign organization engaged in terrorist activity. Material support is broadly defined and includes training and may include other services. The State Department maintains a list of foreign terrorist organizations (George Washington University, 2006). Ross University is not affiliated with terrorist organizations, however some organizations with innocent sounding names may conceal terrorist identities, therefore Ross University will have to diligently research possible foreign partnerships and affiliations.

    Corrupt Practices:

    The offer or payment, or even the promise to pay anything of value to a foreign official for the purpose of doing business or gaining an unfair advantage is a violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Since Ross University is affiliated with DeVry Education Group, which is a for-profit company has strict policies against bribery and violating import or export laws.

    Regulatory Issues Affecting Ross University:

    The issues facing Ross University include trade in services, including consulting, engineering, telecommunications, and the professions. Since Ross is a school of medicine and trains medical professionals. Trade in services for Ross University includes areas of practicing physicians, health care, research and development, and education. Imports are subject to duties and regulations, and exports require licensing.

    Ross University Policy on Compliance:

    The duty and tax on imported goods into St. Kitts & Nevis for Ross University Veterinary School of Medicine requires the entry of students, faculty and staff residing in St. Kitts to import applicable articles. These articles should have been in domestic possession of the individual for a period of no less than 1 year (Ross University, 2014). Used and personal household items are exempt from import duty and custom service charge. These articles are brought with individuals to facilitate the movement of persons setting up for living purposes. For articles of transport new and used, approximately 53% duty and tax are on depreciated value of bicycles and motorcycles. Approximately 75% duty and tax on the value of a vehicle with proof of purchase and ownership required. Articles used in educational studies must be approved, textbooks have a 6% service charge and all other educational articles have 48 % duty and tax (Ross University, 2014). Groceries up to 66 lbs. are exempt from duty and tax, anything over 66 lbs. has approximately 53% duty and tax. Individuals traveling with computers have no charge; however importing computers have a 23% customs service charge. Toiletries with reasonable usage are exempt from duty and tax but excessive amounts have approximately 53% of duty and tax (Ross University, 2014).

    Export licensing has special provisions governing the qualifications of service providers like Ross University. Most governments license service providers at some level in areas such as law, medicine, and nursing (Schaffer, 2011). Countries like Brazil, Japan, and United Kingdom can continue to license professionals and other service providers as necessary to ensure the quality of service. Licensing in these countries must be based on objective criteria, such as education, experience, or recognize licenses granted by other countries, but only if they choose to do so (Schaffer, 2011).

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