Explore BrainMass

Cross-Cultural Psychology

Cross-cultural psychology takes into consideration an individual's culture, including values and beliefs, when considering behavior and what is considered normal and abnormal. Cultural considerations should also be taken into consideration when creating standardized assessments and when treating a client.

With a career in cross-cultural psychology, individuals are often involved in research or academic settings. Some research may focus on how people are similar or different in certain areas, such as personality and reasoning, while other research may be focused on determining if disorders are more or less prevalent in some cultures over others.

In some ways, cross-cultural psychology encompasses many other fields of psychology. For instance, it involves cognitive psychology through exploring how reasoning, motivation, language, learning, and choice are different for people in different cultures. Social psychology is included in topics like how people from different cultures behave socially, such as the idea that people in collectivist cultures like South Korea and Japan value family and dependence, while those in individualistic cultures like the United States value independence from the group.

The study of abnormal psychology within cross-cultural psychology is also greatly important in areas of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. For example, many standardized assessments like the Beck Depression Inventory are based off of test results using a sample of the predominant culture. Therefore, the test may not be generalizable to different populations, and people from other cultures may answer in very different ways, which could mask an actual diagnosis of depression or result in a diagnosis of depression when the person doesn't actually have depression. Methods of treatment must also take into consideration the client's culture, because some cultures may be more against drug therapy while others could be more resistant to certain types of psychotherapy.

Therefore, cross-cultural psychology is an extremely important area of study. Culture not only comes into play when considering the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders, but also when studying aspects of individual behavior as well.


Image Credit: rajkumar1220 / flickr

Categories within Cross-Cultural Psychology

Theories in Cross-Cultural Psychology

Postings: 129

Theories in cross-cultural psychology include those on each of the sub-categories below, as well as theories such as Hofstede's cultural dimension theory.

Language and Cognition

Postings: 121

Raising children in different cultures results in the learning of different languages as well as differences in cognition, such as choice, reasoning and motivation.

Personality and Belief Systems

Postings: 351

Culture impacts the development of an individual's personality and belief systems, including how independent and outgoing they are, and whether they believe in starting a family or getting a career.

Human Resources and Employee retention

Juanita performance as Human Resources Manager: 1) Should Juanita attempt to reduce voluntary and involuntary turnover? 2) A risk of disciplining employees is that some may retaliate. To avoid that risk, what organizational policies might encourage high-performing employees to stay while encouraging low-performing employee

Cultural Differences and Therapy

You have been working with an Iranian-born client for several months due to mild symptoms of anxiety following a traumatic incident he or she witnessed during a recent visit to Iran. This client often gets "off track" and discusses things that are not relevant to his or her anxiety. Sometimes things feel a little chatty, but

Confidentiality in Therapy with Adolescents

As a therapist your client is a sixteen year old Hispanic female sent to therapy by her parents when she told them she had been molested. She also has behavioral issues possibly related to the abuse. According to her parents, she locks herself in her room when she gets home, sneaks out, writes dark and disturbing poetry, and the

Ethnographic Inquiry and Preservice Students

See the attached file. Just as a foreign student was asking a question in his chemistry class, his professor and classmates began to laugh. The student concluded that he was being subjected to such extreme public humiliation because he had said or done something so terrible that the professor had decided to oust him from the

Use of Psychology

I believe psychology can be applied to the future to improve society by raising awareness. I believe that by raising awareness of diffusion of responsibility and pluralistic ignorance, more people would be inclined to respond in an emergency situation or in a situation where something inappropriate is happening. There is a T

Cultural Limitations when Assessing and Treating Clients

What are at least two cultural limitations associated with assessment and treatment? Can you discuss the use or misuse of assessment instruments, therapy techniques, research results, or any other facet of clinical practice that could have potentially harmful, culture-specific implications? Within those cultural limitations.

Understanding Multicultural Competence

What are the characteristics, beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge of a multiculturally competent practitioner? What skills and behaviors does a multiculturally competent practitioner exhibit? What specific skills might you need to be multiculturally competent in your planned professional role as a psychological practitione

Sigmund Freuds Basic Concepts

Please help with the following problem: Briefly outline Sigmund Freud's basic concepts with one or two sentences each. Please use the following concepts: endopsychic conflicts, defense mechanism, the conscious continuum, and the psychosexual stages of development.

assessment and diagnosis change with culture

It has been recognized information regarding the influence of culture on the client's perception of drug use is vital; it helps in assessing whether a client meets the criteria for a disorder related to substance abuse. A therapist can use this information to evaluate the client's severity of drug use and abuse. If the client in

Recognizing Culture Gaps

1). As a leader, how might you recognize a culture gap? 2). What are some techniques leaders might use to influence and change cultural values when necessary? Use at least one scholarly resource to support your claims and sub-claims. Provide an example in your discussion.

Transformational Vs. Transactional Leadership

Evaluate what you consider the most important difference between transformational leadership and transactional leadership and between transformational and charismatic leadership? How is transformational leadership similar to charismatic leadership?

Transformational Leadership/Transactional Leadership

1). Evaluate what you consider the most important difference between transformational leadership and transactional leadership and (2) between transformational and charismatic leadership? 3). How is transformational leadership similar to charismatic leadership?

Leadership Roles in Diversity

1. Evaluate how a leader's role and responsibilities might change as a company becomes more diverse. 2. Is it important for today's leaders to develop cultural intelligence? 3. Do you think a leader that has never had experience with people different from him or herself can develop the ability to smoothly adapt to cultur

Leadership in a Crisis

Listen to the Leadership in a (permanent) Crisis podcast by Harvard Business Idea Case. This is the link to the Leadership in Crisis podcast: Think about a recent crisis. Here are some examples: - BP oil spill

Secretly freezing pay for some to give to others

Given today's economic environment, some companies are secretly freezing pay raises or even cutting pay for some employees so they can offer substantial raises to people considered star performers. 1. As a motivational technique, does this practice seem like a good one to you? 2. Discuss pros/cons of this practice from va

organization RFP paper

The purpose of this document is to convey the response to the RFP. This document is provided to the client, containing all required components of the RFP response. Should the organization request information such as a company description, client list, resume, or vita? Include the appropriate sections in the RFP response, showi

Understanding Rationale for RFP

Document 1 - RFP Understanding and Personal/Professional Rationale for RFP See attachment The purposes of Document 1 are for students to do the following: - Demonstrate a clear and thorough understanding of the RFP issuing the organization's business need and RFP response requirements, including the stated business pro

Implications for Working with Ethnically Diverse Clients.

-What role does discrimination play in perpetuating the assessment of alcohol and other drugs (AOD) problems among diverse populations? -How does the issue of social justice influence the treatment of diverse groups with AOD abuse problems? (Please support with APA resources.)

Sexual Attitude and Behavior

Compare the similarities and differences of one sexual attitude and one sexual behavior in Pakistan and America. The cultural factors that influence those and how sexual attitudes and behaviors are perceived and displayed within each culture.

Different Models of Group Development

1.What are some of the similarities and differences among the different models of group development discussed in text are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning? Which model makes the most sense to you? Why? (Make sure to support your answer with at least one outside source.) 2.What are some of the variables t

Psychological Disorders from a Cultural Perspective

Are psychological disorders universal or culturally specific? I feel they are both with more weight being universal and perhaps the cultural standpoint having a triggering effect to the disorder. It seems confusing and quite complex. Would more well-know disorders like schizophrenia, depression, and ADHD, be considered universal

Socio-political Skills

Organizational structure, norms, values, culture, etc. all have an impact on a leader's success. Consider the new or advancing leader. As such, we are expected to learn how to effectively perform all of the important administrative and professional/technical tasks. In addition, we need to master the necessary social skills assoc

Co-evolutionary gaming

I have enclosed an article concerned with co-evolutionary gaming, and attached the questions with a diagram of the Jo-Hari window.

Merger and Unit Integration Issues

Attached is the scenario and question 1+2. Can you help me in condensing major facts? Thanks, Ursula Merger and Unit Integration Issues As a leader/manager, one circumstance you may encounter is the necessity to integrate or merge two organizational units. This can be a very stressful period where, if not properly manag