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Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry is the examination of the structures and behaviors of carbon-based compounds. It uses both physical and chemical methods to evaluate these properties. Although it aims to study the behavior of organic substances in its purest form, it also focuses largely on organic reactions within different chemical systems, such as in solutions and mixtures. Even though Organic Chemistry is considered an isolated sub-discipline of chemistry, it is not truly distinct from Inorganic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry or General Chemistry, as it draws on concepts from each of these disciplines.

Organic Chemistry largely focuses on the study of structure, as one of the underlying principles is that structure determines behavior. Thus, by knowing an organic compounds structure, a chemist can predict its behavior under different chemical contexts. A common way to determine structure is through spectroscopy, which is the study of the electromagnetic interactions within the molecule under study. For example, analyzing the different peaks in a mass spectrum will reveal the mass-to-charge ratio and abundance of the different ions that are generated using the mass spectrometer. Thus, using analytical techniques to determine structure, property or reactivity is extremely important in the field of Organic Chemistry.

Since organic compounds form the basis of all life on Earth, the applicability of Organic chemistry is not limited to the laboratory – it also heavily extends into the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine and even botany. Thus, studying Organic Chemistry is essential for the prediction of organic chemical behavior. 

Categories within Organic Chemistry

Acid and Base Organic Chemistry

Postings: 329

An organic acid is a carbon-based compound with acidic properties, while an organic base is a carbon-based compound with basic properties.

Organic Chemistry Bonding

Postings: 270

In Organic Chemistry, Bonding refers to the process of a carbon-based molecule forming a chemical bond due to the attractive interactions between two atoms.

Organometallic Chemistry

Postings: 32

Organometallic Chemistry is the examination of the structures and properties of chemical substances which contain covalent-character bonds between carbon and a metal.

Mass Fragmentation Patterns for a Few Compounds

See the attachments. Guideline 1. The relative intensity of the molecular ion peak is greatest fro the straight chain compound and decreases as the degree of branching increase. 2. The relative intensity of the molecular ion peak usually decreases with increasing molecular weight in a homologous series. Fatty esters appe

Energy Diagram: Kinetic vs. Thermodynamic Products

I am trying to draw an energy diagram for the methone to -/-menthol & +/-neomenthol. It is a redox reaction but is it also an SN2 reaction? Product is slightly in favour to -/- menthol, does this mean -/-menthol is thermodynamically favourable to +/-neomenthol How do I determine which is more kinetically favoured?


In HPLC, how often should I need to run standard with samples? Why? If the retention time is changed with real samples compared to standard, how can I determine if the peak with changed retention time is samples are actually compounds A and B?

Assorted questions on aromatics and grignards

1. Give the structures of all possible products when 3-bromopentane reacts by the E2 mechanism. 2. Ethers and alcohols can be isomeric. Write the structures, and give names for all possible isomers with the molecular formula C4H10O. 3. Using a Grignard reagent and the appropriate aldehyde or ketone, show how each of the

Assorted Alkene Reactions

Hi. I'd like to check answers to some things before my final. I like handwritten work because it really helps me with the thought processes, like taking a test. 1. Write an equation for the sequential hydroboration and H2O2/OH ̄ oxidation of 4-ethyl-3- heptene. 2. Indicate the main monosubstitution products in each o


The goal of the recrystallization procedure is to obtain purified material with a maximum recovery. For each of the following situations, explain why this goal would be adversely affected. a) In the solution step, an unnecessarily large volume of solvent is used. b) The crystals obtained after filtration are not washed with

Synthesis Questions

Can you please explain these problems we don't have a book for my class and I haven't had any luck searching around online or from my physical organic book. Please let me know if you can do these?! 1.) Which form of molecule A is the most stable (1, 2, or 3)? Provide a graphical (i.e. figures not graphs) provide an explanatio

Nomenclature of alkanes and alkenes

This solution describes how to name alkanes and alkenes according to the rules of scientific nomenclature. It was originally part of my ebook EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE. If you want more information or a more complete description to include inorganic compounds, please see the ebook section of this we

Fluorescence Chemistry lab

Chemistry 3211 Experiment #5 The Simultaneous Determination of Chloride and Bromide Ions Using Fluorescence Quenching 18 June 2013 ABSTRACT The fluorescence quenching method was used to analyze an unknown sample using fluorescent indicators quinine and acrdine to determine the weight percenta

Orbital analysis

(a) The pericyclic reaction shown below is an example of the Cope rearrangement. (i) Classify the sigmatropic rearrangement as an [n,n]-sigmatropic rearrangement, where n is an integer. Show how the classification is arrived at as part of your answer. Please see the attached document for the diagram. (ii) An incomplet

FC assay

In the Folin Ciocalteu assay, why do we need to excess FCR? Also give 3 reasons why gallic acid is used as standard for the total phenolic assay?

Dimerization of C5H6

Suggest a method for measuring the rate of the following reactions: i) 2H2O2(aq) ------> 2H2O (l) + O2(g) ii) HBr(g) -----------> H2(g) + Br2(g) (colorless)............(colorless)....(dark red-brown) For the dimerization reaction 2C5H6(g) --------> C10H12(g) Change in the concentration of C5H6/ change in

Chlorination Reaction

4. For the reactions: Cl + H-CH3 --> Cl-CH3 + H Cl + H-CH3 --> CH3 + H-Cl a) Calculate the change in H for each reaction using bonds dissociation enthalpies. b) One of these reactions is the rate-determining step in the correct mechanism for the chlorination of methane. What is it? Explain why, based on

Liquifying Propane

Please show all work for the final calculations and answers. Thanks! 1) Calculate the entropy change that occurs when 3.5 moles of an ideal gas expands from 1.75 L at 20 degress Celsius to 8.46 L at .54 atm. Explain your strategy for solving this before you start. 2) Pop is packaged under CO2 (g) slightly above atmospher

Organic vs. Silicon-Based Solar Cells

Compare and contrast organic and present day silicon-based (inorganic) solar cells. Describe the physics behind the operation of these solar photovoltaic devices and then discuss how their efficiencies are determined. What advantages and disadvantages exist for both organic and inorganic solar cells? Describe the main

Bomb and Radiation

Consider a van parked in a lot outside a professional football stadium in Atlanta, GA on a Sunday afternoon. One ounce of radioactive isotope Cesium 137 was mixed in with the explosive that has been detonated and has caused considerable blast damage. The dust cloud carries toward the nearby downtown area on a light wind speed of

Determining Optically Active Forms

Which of the following substances can exist in an optically active form? a. 1,3-dibromopropane b. ethyl cyclohexane c. 3-ethylpentane Please refer to the attachment for full problem set.

Combinatorial Chemistry Sample Solution

Lab 7: Combinatorial Chemistry Ojective: - Combinatorial Chemistry will be used to rapidly produce a library of potential drugs and explore their potential as antibiotics. This lab is adapted from "Combinatorial Chemistry: Antibiotic Drug Discovery" published in Doxsee and Hutchinson, Green Organic Chemistry: Strategies

Solubility: Water, Hexane, Ethanol, Ether, Heptane, Ect.

Could you please help me with the following chemistry questions?: 1) Rank them in order of relative solubility(1: most soluble, 3: least soluble) 1. Ethanol in Water? in Hexane? 2. Diethyl ether in Water? in hexane? 3. Heptane in water? in Hexane? 2) When mixed water and ether (diethyl ether

Melting Point for Known Compounds

* Unknown compound that shows an observed melting range of 90-94 Ë?C. Which is to be, X (listed mp 97-98 Ë?C) or candidate Y (listed mp 86-87 Ë?C). Why might your sample not have the same melting range as either of the known compounds, given that it must be one of them? * Test tubes labeled A, B, and C contain substances

MS, IR, & NMR spectrum of an unknown compound

You are given a description and 3 spectrum of an unknown compound and you are asked to identify it based off of the MS, IR, & NMR spectrum. All work must be shown with reasoning behind how the answer was found. The problem is in the attachment below.

Identify all the functional groups present in lidocaine.

1.)a.) Identify all the functional groups present in lidocaine. b.) Identify and draw the structures of two simpler compounds, one of which should be a carboxylic acid, from which you could make lidocaine. What type of reaction would these two compounds undergo in order to form lidocaine? What is the other product of this re

Naming Hydrocarbons

NEED NAME FOR 1. H H H H H C C C C H H H 2. H H C = C C H H 3. H H H H H H CH3 H 4. H C C C H H C C C C C H H H

Spectrophotometry and Chromatographic Separations

1) When measured in a 1.00 cm cuvet, a 9.45×10-4 M solution of species A exhibited absorbances of 0.155 and 0.687 at 450 nm and 725 nm, respectively. A 2.65×10-3 M solution of species B gave absorbances of 0.613 and 0.078 at 450 nm and 725 nm, respectively. Both species were dissolved in the same solvent, and the solvent's abs

Persistent Organic Pollutanants

Question 11 The following molecules are known Persistent Organic Pollutants, which are globally monitored & regulated. Their log(Kow) values, as reported by the United Nations Environmental Protection Agency (UNEP) in 1995, are given here. Where ranges are given, this indicates different values obtained under different enviro

Lighting Cans of Alcohols

1. a. You are presented with three identical metal containers of about 5 litres capacity, each about half full of fuel. The containers have a short neck and are normally closed by a screw cap of about 30mm diameter. The cans contain: (i) petrol (gasoline, flashpoint -43oC), (ii) methyl alcohol (methanol, flashpoint

Introductory Organic Chemistry: Formulas and Naming

1. Write structural formulas for the following compounds: a. 2,4-dimethylpentane b. 3-bromo-1-chlorohexane c. 1,2-dimethylcyclobutane d. 2-chloro-1-methylcyclohexane 2. Write expanded formulas for the following compounds, and name them, using the IUPAC system: a. CH3CH2C(CH3)2CH3 b. CH3CH2Cl c. CHCl2CHBrCl d. (CH3)3CF

Acetals and hydrolysis

Hello, Can you please help me with these two problems. I can't seem to work through the steps to even find the carbocation intermediate in step two as described in the first problem to explain why it is stabilized. I not sure where to begin on the second problem. Thank you!