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Biological Chemistry

Biological Chemistry is an examination of the chemical processes within biological systems. It focuses on evaluating the biological signaling and flow of chemical energy through the process of metabolism within living organisms. Although, Biological Chemistry has typically been focused at explaining the living process, it today focuses mostly on understanding how individual biological molecules, along with their interactions contribute to the complexity of a whole organism. Although, Biological Chemistry is a discipline of Biology, it also draws on concepts from General and Organic Chemistry.

Biological Chemistry largely focuses on the study of the properties and interactions of biological macromolecules which include, but are not limited to proteins, DNA, lipids and carbohydrates. The main focus is on these macromolecules because they intrinsically give or react to give the functions associated with life. Although the focus is on these macromolecules, an examination of their constituents, such as their amino acids, nucleotides, triglycerides and saccharides respectively, is also necessary.  Thus, understanding processes which synthesize these larger macromolecules are extremely crucial – processes which include the citric acid cycle, beta-oxidation and DNA replication.

Since, these macromolecules form the basis of life, the applicability of Biological Chemistry extends mainly into the fields of medicine and pharmacology. Thus, studying biological chemistry is a crucial component of understanding and predicting the different chemical processes within biological systems.

Categories within Biological Chemistry


Postings: 20

Metabolism refers to the collection of all chemical reactions which take place within a living organism.

Molecular Biology

Postings: 31

Molecular biology refers to a discipline of biology which deals with the molecular aspects of biological activity.


Animal products containing solid fats also contain dietary cholesterol. Saturated fats and trans fats tend to raise "bad" (LDL) cholesterol levels in the blood. Explain why LDL is considered a "bad" cholesterol. Explain the consequences of excess cholesterol in the bloodstream? Why is HDL considered a "good" cholesterol? How

Collagen Role and Structure

In your paper, address the following points: Explain why Glycine, which appears quite frequently, is important to the helical structure of collagen? Compare the structure of collagen to the twisted fibers in a rope. Explain how mutations in cases of Osteogenesis imperfecta result in more brittle bones. If a bulkier amino a

Cellular respiration and Biomolecular

Choose one example of inhibition that is found in either glycolysis or the citric acid cycle.Explain if your example is a process of feedback inhibition or allosteric activation. After evaluating the necessary functions in cellular respiration, you will need to employ a little imagination to suggest a real life situation that pa

Sugar Substitutes, their Benefits and Concerns

Choose one sugar substitute and describe what makes this substance unique. Today artificial sweeteners and other sugar substitutes are found in a variety of food and beverages. Identify three food products that contain a sugar substitute. a. Explain why is it advantageous (to you the consumer and the producer of the product)

Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats

Explain why different fats behave differently at room temperature. Why does olive oil remain liquid at room temperature and butter and shortening remain a solid? Describe trans fat. a. The food industry is always striving to provide new products. Some products are a great success and others have turned out to be harmful. Share

Biochemistry unit 3

Over 10 varieties of the alcohol dehydrogenase molecule have been identified. All of them catalyze the same reaction. Hypothesize how these variations in the alcohol dehydrogenase molecule can explain why some individuals react differently to alcohol than others? Explain how more acetaldehyde is able to escape into the blood st

Essential, Non-Essential and Conditionally-Essential Amino Acids

Part 1 Explain what the term 'essential' means to you. Identify one essential amino acid and describe how it could be obtained in your diet? Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disease that is screened for in newborns. Kwashiorkor is described in your readings this unit as a form of malnutrition caused by inadequate intake o

Biochemistry basics: Why is water important?

1. Why do you think you will benefit from a general knowledge of biochemistry? 2. Water, H2O, is a simple molecule. Briefly explain why you think water is so important to life? Do you think the water needs are different for an elephant compared to E. coli or humans? Explain. 3. The three most important food groups are protei

Sample Solutions: Serial Dilutions

Suppose your professor handed you a test tube with 4.o mL of an E.coli broth culture in it and told you to make a 10^-2 dilution of the entire culture. Explain how you would do this. Show your calculations.? If you've taken 250 ul of plasma and added 750 ul of distilled water, you have achieved what dilution? You begin ser

Enzyme calculations and Methane

You are investigating the biochemical origins of cow methane emissions (belches and farts, to be blunt) which contribute to global warming. Bacteria in the cow gut make methane and a key enzyme in the pathway is methyl-coenzyme M reductase. The turnover number of pure enzyme (mass 300 kDa) is 100 s-1. What is the specific act

Cotyledons Experiment

I need some help on the Induction of nitrate reductase by NO3- in radish seedling cotyledons: 20 pairs of cotyledons are incubated for 4 hours with different solutions, Solution A: K2SO4, MgSO4, Ca(H2PO4) Solution B: K2SO4, MgSO4, Ca(H2PO4), KNO3 Solution C: K2SO4, MgSO4, Ca(H2PO4), KNO3, cycloheximide Solution D: K2SO4,

Fluorescence polarization

The solution is a description of the concept of applying fluorescence polarization to measure protein-peptide binding interactions.

Metabolic Rate and Gas Production

All living organisms must utilize energy to maintain themselves and to carry out life activities. The rate of energy utilization is known as the metabolic rate. Eukaryotic organisms used chemical energy to drive energy requiring life processes. We will measure metabolic rate in both an anaerobic and aerobic organism by measurin

Enzyme Experiment and Analysis

Enzymes are proteins that function as biological catalyst. Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction without being consumed themselves by the reaction. Enzymes can speed up a chemical reaction by lowering the activation (EA ) barrier. (1) Enzymes speed up a chemical reaction and lower the activation barrier of a chemical reaction

Understanding & Calculating Dilution Factors

For an upcoming experiment, an immunoassay (ELISA) protocol calls for a complicated series of dilution steps for your blood specimen. Calculate the final dilution factor after the following steps: Add 1 liter of blood to four liters of water, then take 1 ounce of that solution and add it to 9 ounces of water. Finally, tak

Converting units and accuracy/precision

Exercise 3: Conversion For each of the following, convert each value into the designated units. (please see word doc for chart info) 1. 46,756,790 mg = _______ kg 2. 5.6 hours = ________ seconds 3. 13.5 cm = ________ inches 4. 47 °C = _______ °F Exercise 4: Accuracy and Precision 1. During gym class, four student

Scientific article summery 1. In one paragraph provide a summary of the article. 2. In one paragraph provide your thoughts on the article. Do you think the author presented a good overview of the topic being discussed? Why or why not? Was there anything you would have liked the author to have dis

Gray squirrels and natural selection

Natural Selection 1. OVERPRODUCTION. In a species [organisms that can interbreed], more individuals are born than survive to reproduce. 2. VARIATION. There is variation among individuals in a population, much of which is genetic. 3. COMPETITION & SURVIVAL. Individuals best adapted to their environment are likely to outc

Smearing Blood on the Slide

1. Why is it important to smear the blood as soon as the drop is placed on the slide? 2. Name 3 factors that determine the thickness of the smear. 3. If the patient's hematocrit is increased, how would you adjust your slide preparation methods? 4. If the patient's hematocrit is decreased, how would you adjust your

Zoology table

I need assistance with a biology project. I do not need an excellent grade for this project so minimum effort is needed. Please assist.

Toxicology in workplace air contaminants

An overview of the toxicity of the following workplace air contaminants: Nickel dust or fume (particulate) - Exposure - Applicable Occupational Exposure limits (OELs) - toxico-kinetics - toxico-dynamics Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) (vapour) - Exposure - Applicable Occupational Exposure limits (OELs) - toxico-ki

Definition of Life from a Biological Perspective

Find any media piece (article, video, presentation, song, or other) related to scientific method and describe how it helped to better understand how the scientific method is used to create hypotheses and experiments. Find a media piece that recognizes the fundamental concepts of chemistry in biology and describe how it helps

Principles of Toxicology

1) Some theorists argue that there may be no clear threshold for effects such as carcinogenesis & mutation. What arguments do you think they might put forward in support of this? 2) It is important to understand the physiological means by which toxic agents cross cellular membranes & enter the cells of human body. Define & de

Cellular Respiration Evidence

Respiration Procedures Procedure 1: 1. Mix ¼ tsp of yeast into 175 mL of warm (40-43 C) water in a 250 mL beaker. Stir until dissolved. 2. Label the big and small test tubes 1-5. 3. In a 250 mL beaker, mix the 1 gram packet of Equal with 100 mL of water. In another 250 mL, mix the 1 gram packet of Splenda with 100 mL of

Glucose Oxidation

1. Carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins are important biomolecules. Describe the structures and properties of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins including the different forms of these biomolecules that are present within the body. 2. The membrane of a cell is an important structure that isolates the cell's cytosol from the e

Cellular Respiration

What energy transformations occur between glucose and ATP? The energy in glucose is transformed into the energy stored in the chemical bonds of ATP by the oxidation of glucose during three steps of (aerobic) cellular respiration: 1) Glycolysis, 2) The Kreb's Cycle(also called the Citric Acid Cycle or the Tricarboxycyclic Acid Cy

Examine the nervous system.

Why have both an endocrine and a nervous system? Although we have not yet studied the endocrine system, you know enough about it to answer the question. Both systems use chemical messages (hormones or neurotransmitters) and they are often identical molecules. The endocrine system releases hormones into the bloodstream and the

Catabolism of VLDL particles in circulation.

LDL particles have a higher percent content of cholesterol and cholesterol esters than VLDL particles. Describe the catabolism of the VLDL particles that occurs in the circulation and how this accounts for the increased content of cholesterol in the LDL particles. Describe the mechanism by which peripheral tissues take up and ex