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Biological Chemistry

Fumarase Deficiency

Fumarase deficiency is an extremely rare disease in humans. People with this disease can survive although they are significantly affected. a) Given the importance of fumarase to the citric acid cycle how is it possible for people with fumarase deficiency to produce adequate ATP for survival? b) what would be the overall

Enzyme//Inhibitor

The following kinetic data was obtained using a substrate and an inhibitor. Find Km and Vmax for the substrate in mM and mM/min, then determine the type of inhibition and determine the Ki or Ki's. [S] mM [I] mM Rate mM/min 10 0 600 20 0 667 30 0 692 40 0 706 50 0 714 60 0 720 10000 0 750 10 30 273 20 30 400 30 30 4

Equilibrium Concentration from Keq and Initial Concentration

Part 1: what is equilibrium concentrations and concentration ratios of glucose-6-phosphate/glucose-1-phosphate in the phosphoglucomutase reaction when the initial concentration of glucose-6-phosphate is (a) .01 M and (b) 10^-3 M. The Keq for the reaction below is 19. Glucose-1-phosphate ---> glucose-6-phosphate Part 2: wh

Acid/Base

You want to make a 0.1M acetate buffer from 0.1M solutions of acetic acid and acetate. How many mL of acetic acid would you need per liter of solution (with the rest of the volume coming from the acetate solution) to generate a pH of 4.75? The pKa of acetic acid is 4.76

Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis

The following questions refer to the mitochondrial enzyme MALATE DEHYDROGENASE. What is the chemical reaction, within the citric acid cycle, that is catalyzed by malate dehydrogenase, and which substrates, products, and/or cofactors are involved? The reaction from the previous question is classified as a dehydrogenatio

Reaction process for Lactate Dehydrogenase Catalyzed

Lactate dehydrogenase catalyzes the reversible reaction: Pyruvate + NADH + H^(+) --> Lactate + NAD^(+) Given the following facts, (a) tell in which direction the reaction will tend to go if NAD^(+), NADH, pyruvate, and lactate were mixed, all at 1 M concentrations, in the presence of lactate dehydrogenase at pH 7; (b) calc

Lipid Structures Multiple Choice Questions

See attached file for full problem description. Which structures contain saturated fatty acids or saturated fatty acid derivatives? Select all answers that apply. a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E Which structures contain unsaturated fatty acids or unsaturated fatty acid derivatives? Select all an

Trisaccharide and Sugar Properties

Provide the complete & accurate systematic name for this molecule. Be sure to include the correct names, in order, of the sugar residues, the correct numeric linkage for the glycosidic bonds, and any necessary information about anomeric carbons. See attached file for trisaccharide molecular formula. The first monosacchari

Catalytic Mechanism of Carboxypeptidase A

1) Carboxypeptidase A, a zinc-containing enzyme, hydrolyzes the C- terminal peptide bonds of polypeptides and/or proteins. In the enzyme- substrate complex, the zinc ion is coordinated to three enzyme side chains, the carbonyl oxygen of the scissile peptide bond, and a water molecule. A plausible model for the enzyme's reaction

Beta Glucosidase Activity Assay

I have followed the procedure that you provided to determine the activity of the beta-glucosidase, however, what I am unsure of is how the rate is calculated? In order for me to establish the rate, I followed your instructions however incubated the enzyme/buffer and PNPG solution for different times, ranging from 0-16 minute

Effect on PAGE gel

Describe the effects the following would have on the way you PAGE gel would run: a) Increasing the percent of acrylamide b) Increasing the pH of the Tris-glycine buffer to 9.5 c) Decreasing the voltage at which the gel was run d) Increasing the voltage at which the gel was run by a factor of 3 e) Doubling the sample load vo

Tripalmitoylglycerol Oxidation

Contrary to the legend camels do not store water in their humps, which actually consist of a large fat deposit. How can these fat deposits serve as a source of water? Calculate the amount of water (in liters) that can be produced by the camel from 1 kg (0.45 lb) of fat. Assume for simplicity that the fat consists entirely

Hydrolyzed gelatin use in diet

A weight-reducing diet heavily promoted in the past required the daily intake of "liquid protein" (soup of hydrolyzed gelatin), water and an assortment of vitamins. All other food and drink were to be avoided. People on this diet typically lost 10-14 lb in the first week. (a) Opponents argued that the weight loss was al

Fatty acid biosynthesis

Using your knowledge of fatty acid biosynthesis, provide an explanation for the following experimental observations: (a) The addition of uniformly labeled [14C] acetyl-CoA to a soluble liver fraction yields palmitate uniformly labeled with 14C. (b) However, the addition of a trace of uniformly labeled [14C]acetyl-CoA in th

Oxaloacetate and Oxygene Consumption

Addition of small amounts of oxaloacetate or malate to suspensions of minced pigeon-breast muscle stimulated the oxygen consumption of the preparation. Surprisingly, when the amount of oxygen consumed was measured, it was about 7 times more than the amount necessary to oxidize the added oxaloacetate or malate completely to carbo

Experiment: Measurement And Analysis Of Cellular Respiration

Cellular respiration is a process that occurs in many organisms. The rate of cellular respiration can be measured using several different methods. a) design a specific experiment to measure the rate of cellular respiration in an organism of your choice b) construct a graph to report your results and graph the results th

Absorption Spectra for Fluorescent Proteins

What is the difference between an absorption spectrum, excitation spectrum, and emissions spectrum? I deduce the identity of two fluorescent protein (label FP3 and FP6) based on absorption spectrum. The results of the absorption spectra were plotted in two ways: Y-axis as true absorbance or Y-axis as normalized absorbance

Calcium Signaling in Fertilization

Describe a well-controlled experiment to determine if the rise in internal free calcium observed in the cytoplasm of unfertilized sea urchin eggs in the presence of A23187 is due to in flux of calcium from seawater. Include experimental treatments, controls, and briefly describe experimental methods. Note: As mentioned in th

Immunology

1. A "constitutive" process is one that is always present or active, whereas an "inducible" process is one that requires some stimulus or event to trigger its activity. In your journal, name and briefly explain two constitutive parts or processes that protect vertebrates from elements of their external environment. 2. Injec

Yeasts.

Are yeasts better anaerobic or aerobic? Why?

Breakdown of glycogen

What is the difference between glycogen breakdown in liver and in muscle? - Release vs. consumption

Universal Priming Sequences

A 2500 base-pair long cDNA of unknown sequence was cloned into the MCS of a plasmid vector that has universal priming sequences adjacent to and on both sides of the MCS. On one side this is called the "forward universal priming sequence" and on the other it is called the "reverse universal priming sequence." Sanger sequencing

Using the data given in table below plot a Lineweaver-Burk plot

A) Using the data given in table below plot a Lineweaver-Burk plot b) Determine the Km and Vmax for the three sets of data c) Which inhibitor would the most effective at high substrate concentrations? d) Explain you choice Table 1 : Kinetics data for an enzyme catalysed reaction with and without the presence of

Maximum Growth Rate

Calculate the maximum growth rate (umax) and the specific growth rate (u) at t=10h dX/dt = unetX, when u is constant lnX-lnX0 = ut Attached is a word doc with the data

Glycolysis Pathway questions

1) Glycerol can enter the glycolysis pathway by being converted to what? 2) How many molecules of ATP are used up in the glycolysis pathway? 3) How many pyruvate molecules are obtained from one molecule of glucose in the glycolysis pathway? 4) How many molecules of ATP are produced in the glycolysis pathway? 5) H

Saturation of Lipids - Bromine

If you add 1 drop of 5% bromine solution in hexane to 1mL each of 5% solution of lard, olive oil, and corn oil dissolved in hexane, what happens to the bromine that causes each mixture to turn colorless? If you continue adding drops of bromine to each, eventually the lipids change color. For our experiment it took 14 for lard

Saponification Water-Based Solutions

1) Since calcium and magnesium salts of fatty acids are insoluble in water, how would you expect this to affect the usefulness of soap in hard water? 2) If you were to make soap (using 4 grams of lard, 2 mL of 7.8 M sodium hydroxide & boiling it) and add it to the following and inverting, what would you expect to see as far

4 Problems

3 . Describe the role of each member of the "triad" in the mechanism of chymostrypsin. 4. Some enzymes show a bell shaped curve for enzyme activity versus pH. What conclusions can you reach about the nature and the function of groups in the enzyme? Name an enzyme which exhibits this characteristic. 7. In 1935, two famous