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Cell and Molecular Biology

Cell and molecular biology is an integrative field of study which is focused on understanding the life of a cell. Eukaryotic organisms are composed of a multitude of cells and it is these cells which give rise to all required biological functions, are capable of regenerating and can become mutated.

Molecular biology is a field of study which is closely associated with genetics and aims to understand the processes which occur between cells, proteins and DNA. In essence, molecular biology allows scientists to better comprehend how organisms function and advancements which have been made can be useful to many other fields of science such as biochemistry and genetics.

Over the decades molecular biology has become a wildly popular field and numerous techniques have been developed. Some molecular techniques include the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) which allows for single strands of DNA to be copied or altered and different types of gel electrophoresis, which allow DNA, RNA and proteins to be separated, identified and studied. For instance, southern blotting is a type of gel electrophoresis used to detect specific DNA sequences. 

Cell biology focuses more on understanding the components of a cell, cellular process and how cells become specialized. The internal space of a cell is rather intricate and composed of numerous organelles which ensure that a cell functions properly. In terms of cellular processes, this includes mechanisms such as cellular division and DNA replication. Using molecular techniques, the secrets of a cell can be uncovered. 

Cell and molecular biology is an important and multi-dimensional field in biology which has grown tremendously. Continuous advancements in this field are crucial to shed further insight on the cellular machinery and mechanisms which control all organisms. 

Categories within Cell and Molecular Biology

The Cell Cycle

Postings: 59

The cell cycle, which occurs in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, is a process which allows for a cell to be duplicated.

Cell Differentiation

Postings: 39

Cell differentiation is a crucial and continuous process in multicellular organisms which allows for cell specialization.

Opinion of Stem Cell Research

1. What is your opinion on stem cell research and the use of stem cells in bioengineering? Find an article that supports your opinion. Post the URL of the site where you found the article, along with a brief summary of it. 2. Do you feel the amount of money spent on stem cell research is appropriate or could this money be mo

Bonding Properties of Water

The bonding properties of water give it certain characteristics: surface tension, capillary action, universal solvent, high specific heat, and a high heat of vaporization. Indicate three reasons why you believe these properties are important to organisms that live underwater. In your own words, explain one of the following every

Mass Spectrometry Predicting Protein Sequences

This assignment focuses on the methodology of peptide mass finger printing (PMF) and use of mass spectrum analysis software. The lecture notes provide a good foundation for this but you will have to carry out additional personal research to effectively answer the questions. The learning objective of the assignment is to give you

Gene Expression and Application

Answer the following questions about DNA microarrays and gene expression analysis a. Why aren't all genes expressed all the time? b. What is the advantage of using DNA arrays vs. one gene at a time analysis? c. What is the significance of co-regulated genes? d. What is the significance of a condition specific gene expression

Lambda Phage and Biotechnology

Discuss lambda phage as an experimental system. How has it been used in biotechnology? Explain how it is used as a vector for the cloning of recombinant DNA. Why is it important to know about restriction enzyme sites in phage lambda DNA? How would a scientist use a restriction site map for lambda?

Integrin and Extracellular matrix

You must answer the questions. 600 words each question. . Use diagrams to illustrate with the explanation? . The questions are all essay- type. read them carefully and make sure you answer the question posed. 1. Discuss the structure and function of integrins using diagrams to illustrate your answer 2. 'Extracellular matr

Steps in Isolating DNA Using Strawberry Fruit

To do molecular biology studies of DNA, one must develop methods to extract it. The extraction of DNA can be very complicated because of the structural and chemical complexity of cells. Eukaryotic cells are composed of many different organelles that are suspended in a complex aqueous matrix of soluble and insoluble materials. P

Cell Structures Related to the Functions that are Important to life

Choose 1 organelle, and use an analogy to explain its function. For example, explain how a chloroplast is like a solar panel, or how a mitochondrion is like a furnace. Try to think of original analogies for other organelles or cell structures such as golgi, lysosomes, the cell wall, cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosome

SLP Natural Selection and Ecology

For each of the SLP assignments, you will be provided with a hypothetical experimental scenario or data. These assignments are more opened-ended than the case assignments. You will speculate about possible explanations and the ways they might be tested, but be sure to that your hypotheses are grounded in accepted biological scie

Natural Selection and Ecology

1) Why is the Hardy-Weinberg law useful? 2) Define genetic drift. 2) What factors influence the mutation rate of a population? 3) Briefly explain the difference between stabilizing selection, directional selection, and disruptive selection. 4) Why are layers of sedimentary rocks particularly useful for geochronology?

DNA microarray

You perform DNA microarray experiments on cancer cells at different time points (0, 6, and 12 hours) following the addition of a novel anti-cancer drug. You obtain the following normalized and scaled microarray data for the genes Myc, p53, and Ras. Gene Name 0 hr 6 hr 12 hr Myc 1.0

Needleman-Wuncsh Dynamic Programming Method

Using the document attached, use the Needleman-Wunsch dynamic programming method to align the following pair of sequences. (see attached) Use the unitary scoring method to score the initial alignment matrix. Write the appropriate score into each square in the matrix below. (see attached) Use the Needleman-Wunsch dynami

Cell Biology-Data Interpretation Scrap 6

Please see the attachment for Table 1. Dissolved oxygen is oxygen that is trapped in a fluid, such as water. Since virtually every living organism requires oxygen to survive, it is a necessary component of water systems such as streams, lakes and rivers in order to support aquatic life. The dissolved oxygen is measured in uni

stem cell research and political views of President Obama

Stem Cell Research Write two paragraphs or less which describe your current position on stem cell research. In your paper discuss why you hold that view. Describe the circumstances, if any, under which you might reconsider your position. Conduct your own search on President Obama's views of stem cell research. Write a one-pag

Genetic Fingerprinting

What is genetic fingerprinting? Should all children be genetically finger printed at birth? If so, who should control the information obtained and who should have access to the information? What are the advantages, disadvantages, and potential problems associated with this proposal?

Cell Biology Comparisons

2. The inner membranes of cyanobacteria are very similar to those of the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. This similarity supports the hypothesis that chloroplasts evolved from symbiotic cyanobacteria. Which other organelles may have originated in the same way? Explain, providing evidence for your choice. 4. Proviruses can

Cell Metabolism

A. When the concentration of sugar is doubled, assuming there is enough yeast, what happens to the time it takes for the solution to change from blue to yellow? â?¨ 1. halved 2. â?¨stays the same 3. â?¨doubles 4. â?¨triples B. A test tube is setup with some yeast, sugar solution and indicator in it. The color

Alpha Helix Calculations in Bacteriorhodopsin

Under some environmental conditions the halophile Halobacterium halobium synthesizes a membrane protein (MW 26,000) bacteriorhodopsin, which is purple because it contains retinal. Molecules of this protein aggregate into purple patches in the cell membrane. Bacteriorhodopsin acts as a light activated proton pump that provi

Protein Targeting and the lac Operon

1.How are proteins targeted to different compartments with in a eukaryotic cell? Please give a detailed example of how a protein is targeted to a specific organelle. 2.Please describe, in depth, the regulation of the lac operon.

How Lipoproteins Are Secreted to the Outer Membrane

See the attached file. 1. Describe in detail how lipoproteins are secreted to the outer membrane. How is Sec system involved. What part do β-barrels play in the process? How does the process differ for lipoproteins attached to the periplasmic face of the inner membrane and the outer membrane (Figure 1). 2. Describe in deta

Cell Biology

1. Calmodulin a. is an ubiquitous protein in eukaryotic cells b. binds Ca2+ c. is a membrane bound protein d. a and b 2. All of the following properties about nitric oxide are true EXCEPT: a. is a gas b. is synthesized from O2 and arginine c. has a half-life of 2-3 minutes d. activates guanylyl cyclase 3. A

Cell Biology

1. How do evolutionary biologist explain why there are two different ways of handling the pyruvate produced from glycolysis? Be sure to relate your answer to the nature of the Earth 3.5 billion years ago. 2. Explain at a biochemical level how wine is made and compare it to your activity of rapidly opening and closing your ha

Genetic Biology

1. You are in a lab that is studying the process of DNA replication. You are particularly interested to know what exactly happens at the replication fork. To answer this question, you have set up a series of DNA replication reactions in test tubes using physiological buffers and conditions. However, the student that you have hir

DNA template strand

A portion of an exon of a eukaryotic protein-coding gene has the following sequence on the template strand: 5'-AGTCAAGCATCCCTTA-3' What is the sequence of the non-template strand written in the 5'-3' orientation? What is the sequence of the corresponding region of the mRNA? , what is the amino acid sequence of the corres

Using DNA in Criminal Behavior

Today, scientific advances are being made at an astounding rate, and nowhere is this more evident than in our understanding of the biology of heredity. Using DNA as a starting point, do you believe there are limits to the knowledge people should acquire? Defend your answer. Because genetics is important to so many aspects of hu