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RNA and Proteins

RNA and proteins are two biological molecules which are dependent upon each other and play a role in controlling the functions of an organism. Furthermore, gene expression is controlled by RNA and proteins.

Essentially, RNA holds the information which is encoded within DNA and allows this information to be transcribed. Structurally, RNA and DNA differ. For one, RNA is made up of ribose sugars, instead of deoxyribose sugar, which is the sugar contained in the nucleosides of DNA strands. Secondly, the nucleotide thymine is not present in RNA strands and is replaced by another nucleotide called uracil. The last major difference is that RNA molecules are single-stranded.

There are also different types of RNA which are required during different processes. This includes:

  1. mRNA (Messenger RNA): This RNA is made during the process of transcription.
  2. tRNA (Transfer RNA): This RNA is required for the process of translation and allows for protein production.
  3. rRNA (Ribosomal RNA): This RNA is needed for the production of ribosomes which have many critical roles, such as being part of protein synthesis.
  4. siRNA (Small interfering RNA): This is double stranded RNA and has multiple functions such as playing a role in post-transcriptional gene silencing.

Proteins are biological molecules which are composed of amino acids, which are encoded by RNA. The process of translation is responsible for protein synthesis which requires mRNA because it carries the information regarding which tRNA molecules are required to build the protein. tRNA molecules carry the amino acids needed to synthesize proteins. These proteins play a myriad of roles which include, but are not limited to catalyzing biochemical reactions, allowing for different metabolic processes and acting as machinery in cells.

RNA and proteins, along with DNA, are absolutely fundamental for all life forms. Without these three biological macromolecules life would cease to exist. 

Metagenomics rDNA Sequencing

Please provide some assistance in answering the following questions: 1. Why do we use 16s rDNA for sequencing? 2. Why do we use the nanodrop on our DNA extracts? 3. How does PCR work, and why did we need to PCR the DNA extracts? 4. What does the agarose gel run tell us about our PCR products?

Functional promoter elements of non coding RNA

Design Experiment - interpret results... Scenario: You work in Biotechnology... Design an experiment to: Identify and characterize the functional promoter elements that regulate transcription of your new found (RNA polymerase III tRNA) encoding gene that you have isolated from [Bonobos Monkey]. Use: diagrams & writte

genes, proteins, mutations

transcribe and translate each of these 3 following DNA gene sequences' 1. 3'-TACCCTTTAGTAGCCACT-5 original gene sequence 2. 1 3'-TACGCTTTAGTAGCCATT-5' mutated gene sequence. 3. 2 3'-TAACCTTTACTAGGCACT-5' mutated gene sequence What is the significance of the first and last codons of an mRNA transcript. what meaning do thes

Modeling mutations.

Please help with the following problem: Use at following base sequence of one strand of an imaginary DNA Molecule: AATGAACACATGCGCCC. - Write the base sequence of one strand that would be transcribed from the given DNA - Use the Codon wheel to determine the sequence of amino acids in the resulting protein fragment.

Translating mRNA Sequence

Please translate a nucleotide sequence: GGUUUCUUGAAGAGA. Explain the easiest way to do this and provide some general background information on mRNA translating.

Biology essay help

For this assignment, you are to describe the processes involved in making a protein, starting with the DNA in the nucleus and ending with the formation of a polypeptide. Make sure to include the following in your discussion: 1. What is the role of DNA in the cell? 2. What is the role of mRNA and why is it necessary?

Recovery of an Active Protein

Please help with the following problem. Knowing the sequence of a protein, a scientist synthesizes the corresponding RNA. Using the machinery of a cell and this RNA, the scientist then resynthesizes the protein. Should the scientist expect to recovery an active protein from this experiment?

Determining the subunit composition of a protein from data

Would you help me with the following problem? You isolate a new protein. Column chromatography, in Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.4, demonstrates that this protein has a molecular weight of 110,000 D. Chromatography in the presence of 6 M guanidine hydrochloride demonstrates two peaks with masses of approximately 13,000 and approximate

Spectrophotometric Assay of Bovine Pancreatic Ribonuclease b

I recently read over an experiment multiple times and I am having trouble really get a good grasp of what they did, how they did it, and why they did it. The experiment is the attached PDF file. Specifically my questions are: What is the problem they are experimenting on? What is the activity of a protein and why is it

Standard Genetic Code

Using the standard genetic code, interpret the following a) The following sequence was found to occur on a mRNA molecule: 5'-CCUUACACAGGAAACACGUAUGACCAUUGAGGCUUGAACAA-3' What amino acid sequence is represented here following its translation? b) For the above mRNA sequence, identify the bases that correspond to the Shine-Da

Amino Acids - Peptides - Proteins - Nucleic Acids

1. All of the molecular models shown are serine. Which one is L-serine? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 5 2. Which one of the following is L-alanine? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 3. How many peptide bonds are there in a pentapeptide? a. one b. four c. five d. six e. fifty 4. In a strongly acidic soluti

Specifically how to calculate the number of nucleotides needed in mRNA to from a given number of amino acids in a protein. This calculation also works to find the number of DNA nucleotides required to form a protein.

If a single polypeptide chain protein contains 185 amino acids, what is the smallest number of mRNA nucleotides that could code for this protein? How is this calculated? If looking for the number of DNA nucleotides, the answer is the same. The number is the same because mRNA is complimentary to a DNA sequence, matching a sing

DNA Structure

Please see the attachment. View the animated interactive tutorial pages of DNA structure A, B, C & D. Use the mouse (click and drag) to move the DNA molecule around. 1) In tutorial A, how are the hydrogen bonds between the base pairs of the DNA indicated? (two word answer) 2) In

Isolating DNA Precipitation

5. DNA is precipitated out of a water solution by adding an alcohol. Why do think DNA is less soluble in alcohol than in water? 6. Draw the structures of the 4 nucleotide bases found in DNA. What features do they have in common? How are they different? 7. Hydrogen bonds are responsible for holding the two DNA strands toget

RNA Translation and the Cardiovascular System

Please help answer the following questions. What function does the "leader sequence" have in RNA translation. What would happen if it were missing? Does this protein need a leader sequence? Starting at the Vena Cave and ending at the Aorta, describe the exact pressure changes that blood undergoes as it flows through eac


How many total hydrogen bonds would exist between the ff. strands of DNA and the complementary strands? a.) GCATGC b.) TATGGC A strand of DNA has the base sequence GCTTAG. Write the base sequence for the complementary strand. Remember, the DNA and RNA strands are written from the 5' to the 3' end

Role of stress proteins is offered.

What is the function of "stress" proteins under heat shock conditions and how is this related to their function under normal conditions? I explain the mechanism underlying their actions in the cell.

Initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in a novel bacterium

You are studying the initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in a novel bacterium that grows at 75°C. To this end you have isolated temperature sensitive replication mutants in twelve different proteins/genes derived from this strain. You call these mutations hot1-hot12. Your hope is to use these mutations to identify protein

Human Homeodomain

1. Find a model of a human homeodomain/DNA complex. a. How many models do you find? b. What method of structure determination produced the first of these models? c. View the first model on the list with QuickPDB or your favorite molecular viewer. What secondary structural element(s) (helix, sheet, coil) interact with DNA? d

Galactose represser protein

The galactose represser protein from E. coli has a pI of about 5.9. While purification protocols were being designed, it was found to bind to a Mono-S column at pH values of 7 and below. (Mono-S columns have S-type sulfonic acid groups attached to the resin and are strong cation exchangers.) What is unusual about this observ