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Protein Translation

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What is protein translation? In your own words, briefly describe the steps. Where does it take place?

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Protein translation is the process by which proteins are constructed from amino acids (the "building blocks" of proteins). It is called translation because it is a way of translating the genetic code in RNA (which in turn got the code from DNA) into a specific protein. The steps are:

1. Initiation:

A small subunit of a ribosome binds the mRNA "upstream" (on the 5' side) of the beginning of the region that is to be "translated" into a protein. It proceeds downstream (5' -> 3') until it encounters the start codon AUG. This codon (a series of 3 bases in the mRNA) indicates the beginning ...

Solution Summary

The solution describes the steps in building a protein from an mRNA sequence. The expert determines where the protein translation occurs.

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Protein Translation Disorders

1. Which genetic disorder (other than Alzheimer's disease, familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, and prion disorders) results from protein misfolding? How does protein misfolding result in the onset of the disorder? In your opinion, is there sufficient current research on drugs or treatment for your chosen disorder?

2. Describe a genetic disorder (other than α-thalassemia mental retardation syndrome, immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies [ICF] syndrome, Rett syndrome, and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome) that results from aberrant chromatin remodeling. Does the disorder result from adding or deleting acetyl, methyl, or phosphate groups? Explain. Does the abnormal chromatin remodeling affect other genes?

3. Describe a genetic disorder that results from aberrant gene splicing. How does alternative splicing affect the disorder? Where in the gene does the aberrant splicing occur?

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