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Genetics-From genes to protein, mutations.

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Transcribe and translate EACH of the three following DNA gene sequences. Turn these in using the graphic organizer. The letters represent the DNA N-base sequences of the genes.

The first is the original gene. The next two are mutations of the original. Note that the changes (mutations) are shown in parenthesis.

Original Gene sequence 3'-T A C C C T T T A G T A G C C A C T-5

Mutated gene sequence 1 3'-T A C (G) C T T T A G T A G C C A (T) T-5'

Mutated gene sequence 2 3'-T A (A) C C T T T A (C) T A G (G) C A C T-5'

What is the significance of the first and last codons of an mRNA transcript?
What meaning do these mRNA codons have for protein synthesis?
Did the mutations result in a change in the final proteins? If so, describe the change.
In general, why might a change in amino acid sequence affect protein function?

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Part I

Original DNA Strand:

3'-T A C C C T T T A G T A G C C A C T-5'

Transcription (base sequence of RNA):

5'-AUGGGAAAUCAUCGGUGA-3'

Translation (amino acid sequence):

Met-Gly-Asn-His-Arg-Stop

Mutated gene sequence one:

3'-T A C G C T T T A G T A G C C A T T-5'

Transcription (base sequence of RNA):

5'-AUGCGAAAUCAUCGGUAA-3'

Translation (amino acid sequence):

Met-Arg-Asn-His-Arg-Stop

Mutated gene sequence two:

3'-T A A C C T T T A C T A G G C A C ...

Solution Summary

Transcription and translation are the dogma of molecular biology. DNA is transcibed into mRNA by DNA Polymerase. mRNA is then translated into protein by the process of translation. These are the process of DNA synthesis.

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See Also This Related BrainMass Solution

Genetics: From Genes to Proteins

Part 1: Genetics: From Genes to Proteins
Convert the following DNA sequence into its RNA equivalent and then using the genetic code, convert that RNA sequence into the amino acid sequence.

5'-TACTTCTTCAAGACT-3'

For this above DNA sequence, what information is contained in the genetic code for the first and last codon? Be specific.

Part 2: Genetics Problem - Human Blood Types

Mendel is the father of modern genetics, but there are some genetic characteristics that cannot be explained by simple Mendelian genetics. Such is the case with the human blood types in which there are 3 alleles for the same gene, A B, and o. A parent can pass allele A, B, or o to the offspring based on the parent's genotype.
From these 3 alleles, there are 4 blood types (phenotypes): A, B, AB, and O, and there are six genotypes: AA, Ao, BB, Bo, AB, or oo. This is an example of codominance in which both A and B alleles are codominant to each other.

Blood types can be used in forensics to determine if blood is from the victim or criminal. Blood types can be used to determine parental source in situation where the father is unknown; however, blood types can only eliminate certain blood types. DNA fingerprinting is a better method that is used often in criminal and parental determination cases.

Punnett squares such as the one shown above are used to determine the probabilities (percentages) for genotypes of offspring given specific genotypes for the parents.

In the example above, the Punnett Square represents a cross (mating) between a male (on the left side) with blood type AB, and a female, (top of square), with blood type B, genotype BB.
Fill out and turn in the Punnett square for AB x BB above. And, answer the following questions for the cross represented above. Make sure you understand the difference between phenotype (blood type) and genotype. The Punnett Square shows the possible genotypes. When answering the questions, percent (probability) calculations and your answers should be in terms of the phenotypes (the blood types) and NOT the genotypes.

1. What are the possible blood types for the offspring?

2. What are the ratios or percentages for each possible blood type from this cross?

3. What blood types that are not possible from this cross?

You will be turning in 1 completed Punnett square and answers to the questions for Parts 1A above.

Part 3: Cell division, mutations, and genetic variability.

Eukaryotic cells can divide by mitosis or meiosis. In humans, mitosis produces new cells for growth and repair. And, meiosis produces sex cells (gametes), called sperm and eggs. Changes or mutations in genes in sex cells can be inherited by human offspring. Genetic variation in a population of organisms is good; however, sometimes mutations can be harmful or cause genetic disorders.

Briefly, answer the following two questions. List and cite your references for this:

How do meiosis and sexual reproduction (fertilization) produce offspring that differ genetically from the parents? Be sure to talk about both meiosis and fertilization.
Name and describe one example of a human disorder that is inherited and also describe the specific inheritance pattern. For this question, pick disorders that result from mutations in DNA or chromosome number rather than examples such as a genetic tendency for a disorder such as cancer.
You will be turning in answers to the two questions above for Part 2.

Instructor Comments: Set up and work out the part 1 problem. Next set up the part 2 blood typing problem using the punnet square method. Be sure to answer each question concerning the problems using full sentences in good short answer format. Be sure to calculate the probabilities of the offspring inheriting a certain blood type correctly. Paste part 2 following part 1 of the assignment.
Please paste your part 3 ESSAY answers following parts 1& 2 in the same document. Submit one document as the completed IP3.
For part 3, Make sure to use good college level composition with detail, elaboration, and explanation. Make sure to take a good look at the process of meiosis when answering the first question. In the second question, when discussing your genetic disorder, be sure to include what mutation is known, the inheritance pattern, the symptoms, diagnosis, treatments and outcomes. Use your sim score to improve your writing skills. No previous submissions allowed!

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