Explore BrainMass

Explore BrainMass

    Descriptive Statistics

    Descriptive statistics is the process of summarizing data in both a quantitative and visual manner. In a quantitative sense, typically this involves highlighting the main elements of a collection of data, for example, calculating the mean, median and mode. It is through the construction of figures, such as histograms and pie charts that data can be visually represented. Essentially, the overarching goal with descriptive statistics is to characterize data so that the basic quantitative features can be properly understood.

    In descriptive statistics, the method which is utilized to express data depends on the type of data which is being analyzed. Simply put, data can be separated into two general groups: categorical data and numerical data. When dealing with categorical data, the variables which are measured are usually either nominal or ordinal in nature. A nominal variable is one representative of a category, with no associated numerical value. For example, data collected on the different colours of hummingbirds in a sample would represent nominal data. However, ordinal variables do have associated intrinsic values, usually classified as levels or rankings. For example, pretend that in the hummingbird scenario only yellow hummingbirds were measured in terms of the intensity of yellow which they possessed, either being low, medium or high. Therefore, these three levels of intensity would represent ordinal variables.

    In comparison to categorical data, numerical data classifies variables as being either continuous or discrete. Discrete variables are whole numbers, whereas, continuous variables can resemble any number within a range.

    Descriptive statistics is an integral part to the analysis of data because it allows data to be represented in a visual way, in which patterns and outliers can be identified. The use of descriptive statistics is useful for any study which aims to describe the characteristics of the different measures being collected. Additionally, it is critical to understand that descriptive statistics does not aim to formulate inferences which extend beyond the sample data being studied to the population at large. Rather, it functions to solely evaluate and visualize the immediate data collected.

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com February 20, 2024, 3:22 pm ad1c9bdddf

    BrainMass Categories within Descriptive Statistics

    BrainMass Solutions Available for Instant Download

    Simulation using Random Digits Table

    In an effort to boost sales, Probably Breakfast Enterprises started adding prizes in their cereal boxes. 40% of the boxes contain a toy Cat. 50% of the boxes contain a toy giraffe. And, 10% of the boxes have a spoon in case you lost yours. Conduct a simulation to find out how many boxes on average one would need to buy to ensure

    Confidence Intervals In Excel Worksheet

    In this lab we will use Excel to construct a confidence intervals for the true mean mileage per gallon (MPG) for a particular SUV. The following data represent the mileage per gallon (mpg) of gas for a particular SUV: 17.6 17.7 18.1 22.0 17.0 19.4 18.9 17.4 21.0 19.2 18.3 19.1 20.7 16.7 19.4 18.2 18.4 17.1 17.4 15.8 17

    Graphs and Descriptive Statistics

    1 Table #2.3.7 contains the value of the house and the amount of rental income in a year that the house brings in ("Capital and rental," 2013). Create a scatter plot and state if there is a relationship between the value of the house and the annual rental income. Table #2.3.7: Data of House Value versus Rental Value Rental V

    Find the median of a quantitative data

    The following data represents the calories in several fast foods: Food name Calories Domino's Cheese, 1 slice 12″ 210 McDonald's Quarter Pound with cheese 510

    Comparing the Performance: Standard Deviation

    A company is reviewing the performance of two different suppliers of toner ink as their intention is to compare them and possibly switch to the alternate one. Using the following data for hours of toner use before empty answer the following. CURRENT SUPPLIER A ALTERNATE SUPPLIER B Mean 501.7 495.3 Variance 102.3 20.1 Obse

    Probability for Student Locations

    The student body of a local college draws 40% of its students from Ontario, 35% from the rest of Canada, and the remainder from outside Canada. Of those from Ontario, 60% are female, of those from the rest of Canada 25% are female, and of those from outside Canada, 15% are female. a. What is the probability of a male student

    Probability of Faxed and Online Orders

    A company receives 20 faxed orders every two hours. What is the probability that it will receive 8 orders in the next hour? What is the probability that more than 12 minutes will elapse between faxed orders? The company also receives online orders. These orders are over $200 on average 15% of the time. What is the probabili

    Types of Data and Sampling

    Present two different types of data, or variables, used in the health field. Examples could be blood pressure, temperature, pH, pain rating scales, pulse oximetry, % hematocrit, minute respiration, gender, age, ethnicity, etc. Classify each of your variables as qualitative or quantitative and explain why they fall into the ca

    Confidence interval when standard deviation is unknown

    You randomly select 16 coffee shops and measure the temperature of the coffee sold at each. The sample mean temperature is 162.0 F with a sample standard deviation of 10 F. Find a 95% confidence interval for the mean temperature. Assume the temperatures are approximately normally distributed.

    Standard Scores and Percentiles

    1. Heights of American Men. The heights of American adult men are normally distributed with a mean of 69.7 inches and a standard deviation of 2.7 inches. (Use Table 6.3 on page 390 of your e-text to find the Percentile based on the z-score that you calculate.) a. What are the standard score and percentile of a height of 72 inc

    Perform a paired t-test in SPSS

    Research Scenario: A developmental psychologist is studying whether attachment can be improved upon by providing a parent training course. He has 10 parents who are seeking services to improve their children's attachment to them. He uses a measure of which higher scores indicate more secure attachments to caregivers and gave it

    Regression analysis in SPSS and Relationship between Variables

    A counselor wants to study the relationship between the use of social media and the number of friends one talks to on a daily basis face-to-face. He collects scores from a sample of 15 patients on two measures: one is a self-report use of social media on which higher scores indicate more use of social media (possible range of sc

    Descriptive Statistics and Weighted Averages

    Descriptive Statistics and Weighted Averages By hand or using Excel, find the mean, median, mode, 25th percentile, 75th percentile, maximum, minimum, and range. (Estimate the percentiles when working problems by hand.) 1. Professor Ivy has the following scores on her final exams: 97 88 66 55 89 72 94 32 84

    PLS-SEM Analyses

    Please run the SEM model described in the figure below using the enclosed dataset (npcdata.sav). This time, model it and run it in PLS. To do so, the first step will be to convert the SAV file (SPSS) into a text file. If the version of SmartPLS you have supports up to 100 cases, then pick the first 100 cases in the file. Plea

    Business leadership variables

    For this one, please identify 2 variables related to business leadership then find at least 3 scholarly articles that used each of the two variables and fill out the attached table with the information requested. Make sure the articles you select use some type of regression or path analysis or Structural Equation Modeling.

    SEM in AMOS

    Run the SEM model described in the figure below using the enclosed dataset (npcdata.sav). In 1999, NPC Research Inc. conducted a school survey of over 2,000 students in Oregon. The survey included questions about drug and alcohol use, and also questions about the student's perceptions of his or her neighborhood. Responses


    Please reflect on business leadership theory and find (using Web of Science or ProQuest for example) three papers (ideally from top-ranked journals) that used SEM. 1) What are the measured constructs? 2) Why did the authors need to use SEM? 3) Comment on the validity of these constructs using the provided statistics and the

    CFA and SEM, Research Tools, Transformational Leadership

    1. Describe how you may use CFA and SEM in business leadership research, and why you may choose to do so. 2. Write your thoughts on the future of transformational leadership. 3. Why is it important to select appropriate research tools for research? Please relate your answer to business leadership. 4. Please explain what the f

    Dependent Variables in Business Leadership

    Pick a single construct in business leadership as the dependent variable. Identify three scholarly articles (in business leadership - preferably Asian or Japanese leadership) where this specific dependent variable has been used in any form (i.e., as an independent variable, as moderator, or mediator). Make sure the papers

    3 questions

    The SPSS file contains the subscale scores for the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children. The first two columns are subject code and age. The rest include scores on different areas of the exam. Run exploratory factor analysis (principal components, no rotation) on the data. How many meaningful factors will you retain? Inte

    Review of Linking Empowering Leadership to Creativity

    Review of: Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. M. (2010). Linking Empowering Leadership and Employee Creativity: The Influence of Psychological Empowerment, Intrinsic Motivation, and Creative Process Engagement. Academy of Management Journal, 53(1), 107-128 1) Provide an outline of the paper. List all sections included in the paper. 2

    Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Scaling and Exploratory Factor Analysis Select 3 scholarly papers on leadership that used multi-item constructs and exploratory factor analysis. Please cite those three papers in the following questions below: Address the following points in a synthesized set of paragraphs. What are the measured multi-item constructs/

    Basic Statistics Questions on Probability

    Section-I State whether the following statements are True or False. 1. Mean of the values 5, 4, 0, 3 is 3. 2. Half of the observations in a data set are greater than the median. 3. The total number of phone calls in a day, is the example of continuous data. 4. One or more outliers do not affect the value of the m

    Statistical Height Analysis

    To answer this question you will need the set of height data. Ensure that you explain throughout how you have conducted calculations and have analysed the data. a. i. Identify and delete any unreasonable data. ii. Use spreadsheet software to plot a frequency chart and to calculate the mean and standard deviation from

    Pallets and Insurance Claims: Confidence Intervals

    Refer to the Excel file Pallet (attached to the assignment) to address all the questions below: The file contains the weight in pounds from a sample of 368 pallets of Boston shingles and 330 pallets of Vermont shingles. 1.For the Boston shingles, construct a 95% confidence interval for the mean weight. 2.For the Vermont shi

    Solve a set of questions on binomial distribution

    2. A jail has an inmate population with a mean number of prior arrests of 6 and a standard deviation of 2. Arrests are distributed normally. a) What is the z-score of inmates with 1, 3, 6, and 7 prior arrests? b) Would a new inmate with nine prior arrests be in the upper 5% of the arrest distribution? c) Would a new inmate w

    Descriptive Statistics and Samples Versus Population

    Primary Task: Write a brief paper in APA format of 400-600 words that respond to the following questions with your thoughts, ideas, and comments. Be substantive and clear, and use examples to reinforce your ideas. You are going to look at how wealth might change one's life. Use Crosstabs in SPSS to complete the task: Load

    Emily Smith decides to buy a fuel-efficient used car

    Emily Smith decides to buy a fuel-efficient used car. Here are several vehicles she is considering, with the estimated cost to purchase and the age of the vehicle. Vehicle Est. Cost Age Honda insight $5,555 8 toyota prius $1

    Perform a hypothesis testing for mean using t distribution

    1. Average adult Americans are about one inch taller, but nearly a whopping 25 pounds heavier than they were in 1960, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The bad news, says CDC is that average BMI (body mass index, a weight-for-height formula used to measure obesity) has increased