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    Exploratory Factor Analysis

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    Scaling and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Select 3 scholarly papers on leadership that used multi-item constructs and exploratory factor analysis.

    Please cite those three papers in the following questions below:

    Address the following points in a synthesized set of paragraphs.
    What are the measured multi-item constructs/ latent variables? Give example items or the full scales.
    Why did the authors need to use EFA?
    Comment on the validity of these constructs.
    Could the authors do a better job finding and measuring these constructs?

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    Solution Preview

    Select 3 scholarly papers on leadership that used multi-item constructs and exploratory factor analysis.

    From the Research Gate data base, we have chosen three papers on leadership, Alshamrani (2017), Bunning et. al. (2016) and Crossan et. al. (2017), which are using multi - item construct and exploratory factor analysis.

    What are the measured multi-item constructs/ latent variables? Give example items or the full scales

    The first study (Alshamrani, 2017) focuses on the responses to the leadership portions of the instrument. The leadership scale examines 21 first-order characteristics that are reduced to six, second order culturally endorsed leadership styles. The leadership scale is a 112-item scale asking participants to respond using a 7-point Likert scale to indicate the extent to which the characteristic/behavior inhibits or contributes greatly to the leader being an outstanding leader. The GLOBE scales were developed with the focus on middle business managers so the researchers altered the language of the item stems to reflect the education setting (e.g., changed "organization" to "school"). This exploratory study sought to examine the underlying constructs of the second-order scales when analyzed at the individual participant level of analysis.

    The second paper, (Bunning et. al., 2016) was developed based on using LMX as an independent construct, the two dependent constructs of job satisfaction and affective commitment, and gender-similarity as a moderator within the particular context of the segregated work environment. Previous research and developed hypotheses were used to formulate the constructs of interest these are outlined below. The research methodology incorporated measures, sampling and procedures, and measures and levels of analysis. The results of the study are also presented, together with a discussion about the implications of the research, and the limitations of study.
    There are 3 constructs in this paper: LMX - leadership member exchange, JS- job satisfaction and AC - affective commitment.

    The third article (Crossan et. al., 2017), intended to address the structure of leader character. The ontological and phenomenological nature of leader character is such that its dimensions and elements should be tightly inter-related. From a research standpoint the inter-related nature of the dimensions is somewhat problematic. They will be more highly correlated than is customary in traditional research that seeks to tease apart the various dimensions of theoretical constructs to enhance their discriminant validity. The constructs used by the authors in this paper are: judgement, collaboration, accountability, integrity, drive, humility, justice, temperance, transcendence, humanity ...

    Solution Summary

    Business Leadership scholarly articles analysis

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