The Middle Age refers to the Medieval period from the 5th to 15th century between the fall of the Roman Empire and the Renaissance. More often than not, the term Middle Ages is used in reference to Europe. The early Middle Ages are often called the Dark Ages because Europe’s cultural and scholarly influence before the Crusades and the Renaissance was relatively small. The West had not yet reached its enlightenment but in reality, until the plague in the 14th century, an astoninglishly small number of people were dying from war and other cuses than in the years that had preceded the Middle Ages. Meanwhile, outside of Europe, the Dark Ages really were an age of enlightenment and progress. China and the Islamic areas of Asia experienced huge strides in science, philosophy, trade and art during this period.
The world underwent a lot a of changes after the fall of Rome. The Middle Ages is aptly named because it really was a period of transition in the West between two hugely influential time periods - the Roman Empire and the Renaissance. Islam and Catholicism grew exponentially in different parts of the world after the fall of Rome and Europe moved from a centralized government to small, localized feudal states unified by the Catholic church. Islam was growing significantly faster that Catholicism, despite the huge influence of the Church in Europe and this eventually lead to the Crusades lead by the Christians. These battles dominated much of the late-Middle Ages and was a source of great unification for both the Christians and Muslims, despite the thousands of deaths that resulted from them.