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Data

Data is a word used in everyday life as meaning pieces of information, usually gathered by scientific methods, or at least pseudo-scientific ones, and meant for analysis and processing. This loose definition is applicable to data in computer terms, but it has a deeper significance in this field as well. 

All a computer truly is is a machine that performs operations on information. That information is data, be it quantities, characters, symbols or any aggregation of those types. There would be no computing without it! Data is constantly being stored, transmitted and transformed by operation for more uses than you could probably imagine. On a fundamental level, it takes the form of electric signals and magnetic, optical or mechanical records that the computer manipulates which can represent information humans are able to understand clearly. 

Coded instructions that make up computer programs are also just essentially a sequence of data, so all programs are data. However, program file types are typically different to that used for ordinary data so we tend not to refer to programs as data, in order to avoid confusion and preserve the distinction between the written instruction code which is technically a form of data, and the actual carrying out of that code by the CPU, which is not. Therefore, all files that are not executables (programs) are the ones we freely call data files. Information stored in memory is clearly also data, only this data is cataloged via memory references, which are another kind of data. Here, we see digital data reduced to key/value pairs to allow programs easy access to the physical computer memory storage available. As you can see, data both instructs the operation of a computer as well as provides the memory information to be operated on. 

An alternative definition of 'data' in computer science is also 'binary files', called that to distinguish them from alphanumeric text that can be read easily by humans.

Categories within Data

Files

Postings: 233

Resources for storing information - there are many, many different types and storage systems.

Closed Frequent Item Sets

Answer the following questions based on the data sets shown in Figure 1. Note that each data set contains 1000 items and 10000 transactions. Dark cells indicate the presence of items and white cells indicate the absence of items. We will apply the Apriori algorithm to extract frequent item sets with minsup = 10% (i.e, itemsets m

Database, subqueries, and joins

•Think of a purpose for creating a database and describe the database. Explain why you would want to use a database for this purpose. •What example could you offer that would demonstrate using a subquery? •What example could you offer that would demonstrate using a join? •In your view, would you prefer using subqueri

Inputs, criteria, and analysis of a small publishing company

I need advice on how to do this question. A small magazine publisher wants to determine the best combination of two possible magazines to print for the month of July. Backyard magazine, which he has published for years, is a steady seller. The publisher wants to make sure he prints at least 400 copies to meet his demand from

Structured Query Language Skills

Customer Volume by Month • CustomerID • Month • Total shipments • Total weight Driver Performance by Month • Driver ID • Month • Number of manifests on time • Number of manifests delivered late In order to create the SQL select statements that would produce running summary files for reports of the above

How to Print an Excel Document Correctly

I have lots of information that is spread across quite a few columns and it runs down many rows. When I hit print, it cuts off the data in weird spots and gives me extra pages that are hard to read, since my data labels are all on the left side. I know that I should switch it to Landscape orientation prior to printing, but it

Extracting a Certain Text File from a File

See the attached file. I have a text file containing sentences and random sequences of letters, symbols and numbers. I have to write a program that will extract only the text sent to a particular device and ignore the rest of the messages. Each message sent has an identifying two characters header (first being a $ followed by a

Excel: Worksheets and Workbooks

What is the difference between a workbook and a worksheet? Why would you want to use separate worksheets when using Excel? Please give 2 general examples. Please research and find the method for creating an Excel formula that references information on the first worksheet from a second worksheet. Can you think of a specific perso

Girl Scout Cookies: Working with Excel

Open the Excel file called "Girl Scout Cookies.xls". Follow the steps below. If you make an error, use the UNDO button to undo the error. 1. Widen column A to a width of 12. (Hint: select the column, click format, click column) 2. Widen column B to a width of 10. 3. Make columns C through J a width of 9. 4. Format the date

Book Store Problem: Working with Excel

Open the Excel file called "Book Store.xls". Follow the steps below. If you make an error, use the UNDO button to undo the error. 1. Widen column A to a width of 12. (Hint: select the column, click format, click column) 2. Widen column B and C to a width of 10. 3. Make columns D through J a width of 9. 4. Format the dates

Channel bandwidth and backup requirement

Consider an organization, which has a rented communications channel between two buildings, A and B. They have a set of servers in building A, and wish to back up critical data on an hourly basis to a set of storage drives in building B. They know that the channel has a bandwidth of 10KHz and a signal-to-noise ratio of 20dB. (i

Project management risk

You have been assigned as the manager on a project to develop a new application system for your business partner. You were given two weeks to develop a project plan and high level cost estimates. Unfortunately, this is a relatively new technology for the company, and although the technology has been tried and tested elsewhere,

BI, data warehousing, data mining

What are important questions that a university might be able to answer by warehousing and mining student records and learning management system data?

Data Mining to detect fraud

The tax authorities working for various governments are often confronted with the challenge of detecting tax evasion and fraud. Imagine you work at the income tax department. All residents and businesses of the country earning income should file tax information electronically along with their tax payment. - How could you use

Customer Analysis on Annual Reports

Problem: I need to make order predictions for next year, based on the data in the table. Table "NUMBER OF TOOL ORDERS PER YEAR" should be represented on charts, type of chart is not important. Table "ORDER PREDICTIONS FOR NEXT YEAR" should be presented on charts too. table is attached Please refer to attachment.

Explain data integrity

Data integrity falls into the following categories: -Entity integrity -Referential integrity -Domain integrity -User-defined integrity Explain them.

Adverse affect on fundamental business decisions

Can the speed in which information is transmitted have an adverse affect on fundamental business decisions?Yes, speed that is traveling at high rates of speed can have an affect on fundamental business decisions. Businesses are constantly expanding everyday and expanding requires them to develop new ways to adapt to the changin

Computer Problems.

Please see attached file for the problems. 1. Commonly, medical digital radiology ultrasound studies consist of about 25 images that are extracted from a full-motion ultrasound examination. Each image consists of 512 x 512 pixels. Each pixel is represented by an 8-bit scale for intensity. A. How many bits are there in

Greedy strategy to find shortest path between two vertices

Consider the following greedy strategy for finding a shortest path from vertex start to vertex goal in a connected graph. 1: Initialize path to start. 2: Initialize VisitedVertices to {start}. 3: If start=goal, return path and exit. Otherwise, continue. 4: Find the edge (start,v) of the minimum weight such that v is adjace

Advantages and disadvantages of different data transmission technologies.

As much as you may have a preference for a type of network (i.e. broadband, wireless) each technology has both disadvantages and advantages. Use the Discussion Tool to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different data transmission technologies. Please answer and provide references and in line citation APA style form

SQL Queries to Manipulate Tables

Please refer to the attached file SQL1.txt that contains SQL commands to create two tables Employee and Job_Title, and populate them with data. Write SQL queries to accomplish following. 1. Choose a Job Description and increase by 10% all employees' salaries that have the selected Job Description (not Job Title). 2. Dec