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There is a joke in computer science that "everything is a tree" due to their widespread use and applications. Trees are abstract data types/structures with a hierarchical build made up of a central root node (thought some types of tree allow this space to be empty) and many levels of children nodes under it. These nodes all link up to form a tree like the one below:

Trees can be, and often are, implemented recursively as a collection of nodes that have both a value or condition attribute and one storing a reference for their parent and/or children nodes. The root is the only node that has no parents; all others must have a single parent node in standard trees. A node with no children is called a leaf. The height  of a tree is the longest possible branch (path) from the root to one of these leaves, counted by the the number of nodes it passes through to get there. The industry standard is to say the root has height 0 but some notate it as height 1. Sometimes it is useful to look at trees as a whole, but often more so at subsections or the individual nodes. Common operations on trees are:

  • adding a node
  • searching the tree for a value
  • removing a node with a specific value

There are many types of trees too! Common types include:

  • Binary search trees (BSTs) - wherein values are sorted as they are added. You begin at the root and go left if the value is smaller than the root's value and right if it is bigger, repeating those comparisons until you reach a place where the node you're adding can be a leaf. The above tree is an example of this type.
  • AVL trees - a BST which is balanced, i.e. arranged so that the heights of each branch are within 1 node of each other. The above tree restructured as an AVL tree would look as follows:

  • Red-Black trees - Similarly to AVL trees, these trees must be balanced, but with branch heights 2 nodes of each other. Each node is also assigned a colour attribute, either red or black, and the black height is the number of black nodes in the longest branch from root to leaf. The root of a Red-Black tree is always black.

Newick Format Tree

Draw the graphical representation of the Newick format tree written below. Label each leaf with the appropriate sequence identifier, and label each branch with its appropriate length (both internal and external branches): Tree Data: ((SeqA:0.36,(SeqB:0.08, SeqD:0.08):0.31):0.03,SeqC:0.47,SeqE:0.39);.

Software Development Process.

Your work as a management information consultant has led you to a long-term project working on a custom decision support system software application. In 600-700 words complete the following and 3 references original only please Use the internet and credible sources to research the following approaches to the software deve

Implementing Operations on Binary Trees

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Graphs and B-Tree

1.Show a path through the graph in Figure 1 starting at node A (see attachment). a. Using breadth-first traversal. b. Using depth-first traversal. 2. Perform the listed actions on the B-tree shown in Figure 2. Please depict the B-tree both when the value has been added/removed and after any excessively small/large nod

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Java: Data Structures

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Please see the attached file. For the graph in 16.28(a), replicate the trace of Prim's algorithm to create a minimum spanning tree. For each step, create the list of minInfo elements in the priority queue and indicate which vertices and edges are in the current spanning tree, along with the accumulated total weight. Figure

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Heaps, Binary Files and Bit Sets

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Calculating the depth of a binary tree

10.30. Use the integers from one to nine to build a nine-node binary search tree with no duplicate data values (a). Give the possible root node values if the depth of the tree is 4. (b). Answer part (a) for depths of 5, 6, 7, and 8.

Binary tree: pre-order, post-order and in-order scan

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Describe how the following information about airlines, flights (for a particular day), and passengers would be represented in a relational database: Airlines: Clear Sky, Long Hop, and Tree Top Flights for Clear Sky: CS205, CS37, CS 102 Flights for Long Hop: LH67, LH89 Flights for Tree Top: TT331, TT809 Smith has reservation

Excel #3

Using the documents given to you by the class president, you will be entering more data into the Excel workbook you created in Phase 1. You will also insert a new sheet into that workbook that will contain the cost data. Open the Excel workbook you created in Phase 1, the list of everyone who has responded to their invitatio

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What are the different types of joins, and how are they used? Show examples to support your reasoning.

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Draw an E-R Diagram

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Consider an n-node complete binary tree T, where n=2^d - 1 for some d. Each node v of T is labeled with a real number x_v. You may assume that the real numbers labeling the nodes are all distinct. A node v of T is a local minimum if the label x_v is less than the label x_w for all nodes w that are joined to v by an edge. You