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# Nuclear

Nuclear physics is a branch of physics that looks at the constituents and interactions of atomic nuclei. Applications of nuclear physics include nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons technology. Nuclear physics also provides applications in nuclear medicine, magnetic resonance imaging, ion implantation and radio carbon dating. Particle physics is often associated with nuclear physics.

Historically, nuclear physics and atomic physics were distinct disciplines. In 1896 Henri Becquerel discovered radioactivity. At the beginning of the 20th century, J.J. Thomson founded the plum pudding model. This model displayed the atom as a large positively charged ball with small negatively charged electrons embedded inside of it.

After the plum pudding model’s discovery, scientists found three types of radiation emanating from atoms, alpha, beta and gamma radiation. It was found that the beta decay spectrum was continuous rather than discrete. Electrons were being ejected from the atom with a range of energies rather than a discrete amount of energies that was observed in gamma and alpha decays. This indicated that energy was not conserved in these decays.

Modern nuclear physics looks at nuclei under extreme conditions such as high spin and excitation energy. Experiments on these nuclei’s can create artificially induced fusion and nucleon transfer reactions. These artificially induced reactions are very useful modern technologies.

## BrainMass Categories within Nuclear

### Nuclear Particles

Solutions: 72

A nuclear particle is a unit of matter smaller than an atom.

Solutions: 299

Radioactivity are the particle which are emitted from nuclei as a result from nuclear instability.

### Nuclear Reactions

Solutions: 116

A nuclear reaction is the process of two or more nuclei colliding to produce one or more nuclide that are different from the nuclei's at the beginning of the process.

### Physics: transition energy, decay, isomeric transition, conversion electron, positron

Please answer clearly and completely. Questions: 1. What is transition energy? 2. Give 3 examples of &#946;- decay. 3. What is (&#946;-,&#947;) decay, write an example. 4. Hat is isomeric transition? 5. What is a conversion electron? 6. What is (EC, &#947;)? Describe the decay. 7. What is electron capture? 8. Disc

### Estimating energy release from nuclear reaction using E=mc^2

Two identical hypothetical nuclei, each with mass ( 3 - .0041) amu, fuse to form a nucleus with mass ( 5 - .00399) amu and a neutron, whose mass is about 1.000867 amu. How much energy would be given off if .58 kg of these nuclei fused?

### Nuclear Reaction Energy Problem

Energy is released during a nuclear reaction due to a conversion between mass and energy. Mass is not conserved; the initial and final amounts are different. If a total of 1 gram of mass is "missing," how much energy has been released?

### Detailed Explanation to Kinetic Energy

Scenario: A neutron in a nuclear reactor makes an elastic head-on collision with the nucleus of a uranium atom initially at rest. (a) What fraction of the neutron's kinetic energy is transferred to the uranium nucleus? (The mass of the uranium nucleus is about 238 times the mass of the neutron.) (b) If the initial kinetic

### Matter wave problem - Kinetic energy

5. For an electron to be confined to a nucleus, its de Broglie wavelength would have to be less than 10^-14m. (a) What would be the kinetic energy of an electron confined to this region? (b) On the basis of this result, would you expect to find an electron in a nucleus? Explain.

### Elastic Collision in Nuclear Reactors

Canadian nuclear reactors use heavy water moderators in which elastic collisions occur between the neutrons and deuterons of mass 2.0 u. What is the speed of a neutron, expressed as a fraction of its original speed, after a head-on, elastic collision with a deuteron which is initially at rest? What is its kinetic energy, express

### Temperature of Water in a Power Plant

In a nuclear submarine power plant, the temperature of the water in the reactor is above 100C. How is this possible? I believe it has to do with the cooling process of boiling water, but would like a little guidance. Thank you for your help!