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Fission

Nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts. The fission process produces free neutrons and photons. It also releases a large amount of energy.

Fission is a form of nuclear transmutation due to the resulting fragments which are not the same element as the original atom. The nuclei produced are often comparable but slightly different sizes. Typically the mass ratio of the two nuclei’s is about 3 to 2.

Fission is most commonly encountered when it is man-made in a nuclear reaction induced by a neutron bombardment. In nature it is only encountered as a natural form of spontaneous radioactive decay, which does not require a neutron. This occurs especially in high-mass-number isotopes.

Nuclear fission produces energy for nuclear power and to drive the explosion of nuclear weapons. Both uses are possibly because certain substances, nuclear fuels, undergo fission when struck by fission neutrons and emits neutrons when they break apart. This makes a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction that releases energy at a controlled rate in a nuclear reactor or at a rapid uncontrolled rate in a nuclear weapon.

The amount of energy contained in nuclear fuel is millions of times the amount of energy contained in a similar mass of chemical fuel, like gasoline. The nuclear fission gas is a very dense source of energy. The products of nuclear fission however are extremely radioactive which causes nuclear waste problems.

Chemistry and Nuclear Reactions

Relate the Three Mile Island incident that happen in Pa, USA to the chemistry of the environment. Question 1: How did chemistry play a role in the incident at Three Mile Island? Question 2: How does chemistry play a role in a possible solution to the problem at the Three Mile Island incident?

Calculating Gas Needed to Produce Certain Amount of Energy

A gallon of gasoline releases 1.93E+8 J of energy when it is burned. How many gallons of gas must be burned to release the same amount of energy as is released when 1.68 lb of 235U undergoes fission. (Assume that each fission reaction in 235-U releases 176 MeV.)

Power Consumption Averages for Fission

Suppose that the average power consumption, day and night, in a typical house is 322 W. What initial mass of 235-U would have to undergo fission to supply the electrical needs of such a house for a year? (Assume 200 MeV is released per fission.)

Church, Galileo, Uranium, Fission, Nearsighted and farsighted

1. In 1610, the Church started its attack on Galileo. They stated: i) Suppose a cannon be fired, first due east, then due west. In one case the shot has the velocity of the earth as well as that of the force of the powder, in the other case only the difference of the two. But, in fact, no such difference is noted, and ther

Nuclear Chemistry

Please refer to the attachment for the proper formatting. 1. Complete and balance the nuclear equations for the following fission reactions. Please see attachment for equations. 4. The half-life of tritium (hydrogen-3) is 12.3 . If 45.6 of tritium is released from a nuclear power plant during the course of an accid

Thermodynamics: Adiabatic expansion

Shortly after detonation the fireball of a uranium fission bomb consists of a sphere of gas radius 15 m and a temperature 3E5 K. Assuming that the expansion is adiabatic and that the fireball remains spherical, estimate the radius of the ball when the temperature is 3000K. (Take gamma = 1.4).

Nuclear Chemistry : Radioactive Decay

Question 1 A radioisotope decays to give an alpha particle and Pb-208. What was the original element? Se Bi Po Hg Rn -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Question 2 Sulfur-35 decays by beta emission. The decay product is ________. P S Si 35-Cl 37- Cl

Basic Chemistry : Fill-in-the-Blank

Name the four families of hydrocarbons. 2. Hexyne is a hydrocarbon containing _____ carbons and a __________ bond. 3. Cyclobutene is a hydrocarbon containing _____ carbons, a ______ and a ______ bond. 4. Alcohols contain an ________ group. 5. A compound containing 5 carbons and a fluorine would be named _________

Ratio of two masses from a fission source

Two detectors placed symmetrically on either side of a fission source, record two fission fragments (A) and (B) from a fission event. If the flight time for (A) is 20% greater than of (B), calculate the ratio of the masses of (A) and (B). Which has the most energy?

Problems with coercive population control and possible alternatives.

Based on growing population and China's policies on population control, discuss your feelings on the following; 1. How do you feel about this policy? 2. What types of benefits and downfalls could you see happening with this type of policy? 3. What impacts could it have on the population both scientifically and s

Nuclear Power Considerations

1. What are the advantages and disadvantages to nuclear power? 2. How would you feel if your township decided they wanted to build one very close to your home? 3. Do other countries utilize more or less nuclear power than the United States? Why? (See Posting 142754 for an alternative response to this inq

Collisions Required to Reduce the Neutron's Energy

Neutrons released by a fission reaction must be slowed by collisions with the moderator nuclei before the neutrons can cause further fissions. Suppose a 1.2-MeV neutron leaves each collision with 66% of its incident energy. How many collisions are required to reduce the neutron's energy to at least 0.040 eV, which is the energy

Energy Generation and Nuclear Fission

The most famous equation in all of the natural sciences is probably: E = mc^2 Derived by Albert Einstein at the beginning of the 20th century it summarizes the equivalence of energy (E) and mass (M) . That c^2 is so large (c^2 is the speed of light of light (3.0 x 10^8 m/s) squared, 9.0 x 10^16 m^2/s^2

Mechanics: Collision, momentum, energy, spring, projectile.

1. A rifle bullet with mass .010 kg strikes and embeds itself with a block of mass .990kg which rests on a frictionless horizontal surface and is attached to a coil spring 10.cm. Calibration of the spring shows that a force of 1.5 N is required to compress a spring 1.0 cm a. find the magnitude of the velocity of the block just

Fuel Consumption

Consider a nuclear power plant that produces 1000 MW of power and has a conversion efficiency fo 30% (that is, for each unit of fuel energy used, the plant produces 0.3 unit of electrical energy). Assuming continuous operation, determine the amount of nuclear fuel consumed by this plant per year. Please show steps and explain. T

Decay of Radioactive Cobalt Sample

Cobalt 60 has a half life of 5.26 year. The Cobolt 60 in a certain radiation therapy unit must be replaced whenever its radioactivity falls to 80 percent of the original sample. If the original sample was purchased in 11/2002 when will it be necessary to replace the Cobalt 60?

Answer in J

If each fission of a 235nucleons 92protonsU nucleus releases about 2.0e2 MeV of energy, determine the energy (in joules) released by the complete fissioning of 0.9 gram of 235nucleons 92protonsU.

Answer in kg

When 1.0 kg of coal is burned, about 3.0e7 J of energy is released. If the energy released per 23592U fission is 2.0e2 MeV, how many kilograms of coal must be burned to produce the same energy as 1.0 kg of 235nucleons 92protons U?