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Binding Energy

Nuclear binding energy is the energy required to split a nucleus of an atom into its components. The components are neutrons and protons. The binding energy of nuclei is always a positive number. Since all nuclei require net energy to separate them into constitutions, the mass of an atom’s nucleus is always less than the sum of the individual masses of the constituent protons and neutrons when separated. This difference is a measure of the nuclear binding energy. It is the result of force that holds the nucleus together. These forces result in the removal of energy when the nucleus is formed. The energy has mass and the mass is removed from the total mass of the original particles. The missing mass is a resulting nucleus. This missing mass is known as the mass defect.

An example of nuclear binding energy is carbon-12 nucleus. It contains 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The protons are positively charged and repel each other. The nuclear force overcomes the repulsion and causes them to stick together. The nuclear force is a close-range force virtually no effect of this force is observed outside the nucleus. The nuclear force also pulls neutrons together.

Calculating the nuclear binding energy of a nucleus is a few step calculations. First the mass defect must be determined. Once it is determined it must be converted into energy and expressed as energy per mole of atoms or as energy per nucleon.

Number of Bound States in a Finite Square Well

1. Families of finite square wells. A particle of mass m has N quantized energy levels in a one-dimensional square well of depth V_0 and width L. N is more than 10. a) Approximately how many bound states does the particle have in a well of the same depth but width 2L? b) Approximately how many states does the particle have i

Energy of Particles in the Nucleus

See the attached file. a) Suppose that the potential seen by a neutron in a nucleus can be represented (in one dimension) by a square well of width 10^12 cm with very walls. What is the minimum kinetic energy of the neutron in this potential, in Mev? b) Can an electron be confined in a nucleus? Answer the question using the

Protein Folding

Consider a small, natively disordered protein that exists in equilibrium with a highly ordered (folded) protein. At 37°C, the ratio of the disordered protein to ordered is 100 to 1. First, write an equilibrium expression (Keq) that describes this situation and calculate the corresponding Keq and free energy. Second, imagine

Light wavelength and photoelectrons

Problem 1. With light of wavelength 520 nm, photoelectrons are ejected from a metal surface with a maximum speed of 1.78 x 10^5 m/s. a) What wavelength would be needed to vie a maximum speed of 4.81 x 10^5 m/s? b) Can you guess what metal it is? Problem 2. In positron emission tomography an electron and positron annihilate,

Energy Levels of Hydrogen Atom: Example Problems

Which of the following statements are true about the hydrogen atom's energy levels? Support your answers with explanation. 1. 13.6 eV is enough energy to ionize Hydrogen, which means exciting an electron from n = 1 up to zero energy. 2. The wavelength of a photon emitted from the n=3 to n=2 transition is longer than that emi

Using Bohr Model to Calculate Minimum Energy to Ionize an Atom

A) From the Bohr model of the Hydrogen atom, calculate the minimum amount of energy (in eV) an electron in the lowest orbital would need to free it from its proton (i.e., to ionize the atom). B) If you consider the Bohr model of the atom, where the proton and electron act as two bodies of mass, and the electron escapes from t

Physics - Atomic and Nuclear

(a)Energy is required to separate a nucleus into its constituent nucleons. This energy is the total binding energy of the nucleus. In a similar way one can speak of the energy that binds a single nucleon to the remainder of the nucleus. For example, separating nitrogen ^14/7N into nigtogen ^13/7N and a neutron takes energy equal

Molecular Mechanisms for Competitive & Noncompetitive Inhibition

Please help me with ten of the following questions. See the attached document for proper formatting. -------------------------- 1. Distinguish the molecular mechanisms for competitive and noncompetitive inhibition. 2. Suggest a mechanism by which some enzymes can be partially protected from thermal decomposition by high

Balmer Spectral Lines of Hydrogen

Q1: I need to calculate the visible lines that should be seen with a spectroscope. This should correspond to lines in which the final bound energy level is N = 2. Q2: I need to compare the observed lines to the ones that I calculate. The observed, recorded wave length lines were:

Schrodinger equation

Using the Schrodinger equation a 1-D Potential well: U(x) = infinite for x<0 = 0 for 0<x<a = U0 for x>a Find the ground state energy (bound state) given the following: U0=0.008575 eV a=2 x 10-8 m

Binding Enegy

I've attached a word document of the problem. I just don't know how to do what it's asking me. --- 4. Calculate the average binding energy per nucleon of the following nuclei. (a) 73Li MeV/nucleon (b) 13856Ba MeV/nucleon I have no idea how to calculate the binding energy for an atom. I looked at the examples in

Radioactive Decay Concept Questions

13. Which one of the following can be done to shorten the half life of the radioactive decay of uranium-238? a. Oxidize it to the +2 oxidation state. b. Heat it. c. Freeze it. d. Convert it to UF6. e. None of these 14. The half-life for beta decay of strontium-90 is 28.8 years. A milk sample is found to contain 10.3 pp

Radiation, Quanta, and Atoms

1. A hydrogen atom in a certain excited state has its electron in a 5f subshell. The electron drops down to the 3d subshell, releasing a photon in the process. a) For each of these subshells, give the n and l quantum numbers, and give the range of possible ml quantum numbers. b) Determine the wavelength of light which woul

Relative Physics

If U235 captues a neutron to form U236 in its ground state, the energy released is B(U236) - B(U235). (a) Prove this statement. (b) Use the binding-energy formula to estimate the energy released, and compare with the observed value of 6.5 MeV. (Note: We have assumed here that U236 is formed in its ground state, and the

Momentum and Collisions

An atom of mass M is initially at rest, in its ground state. A moving (nonrelativistic) electron of mass me collides with the atom. The atom+electron system can exist in an excited state in which the electron is absorbed into the atom. The excited state has an extra, "internal," energy E relative to the atom's ground state. 1

Bound Particle in a Finite Square Well/Potential Well

Question 1 Figure 1 represents a particle of total energy Etot bound in a finite potential well, with potential energy function Etot (x). (see attachment for figure and question) a) From figure 1 express Epot(x) as a function of x. b) For the range of x covered by figure 1 sketch the wave function of the bound stat

Binding energy per nucleon

Be7 has a nuclear mass of 7.0147 amu Be9 has a nuclear mass of 9.0100 Be10 has a nuclear mass of 10.0113 How would you determine which of the above nuclear masses has the largest binding energy per nucleon?

Photoelectric Effect and Particle theorry of light

Ultraviolet light is incident normally on the surface of a certain substance. The binding energy of the electrons in this substance is 3.44 eV. The incident light has an intensity of 0.055 W/m2. The electrons are photoelectrically emitted with a maximum speed of 4.2 X 105 m/s. How many electrons are emitted from a square cen

Calculate the binding energy per nucleus of this boron nucleus

The mass of the boron nucleus is 11.00657 u. The sum of the masses of the 5 protons and 6 neutrons in this nucleus is 11.08837 u. Calculate the binding energy per nucleus of this boron nucleus. (1 u = 931 MeV) A) 0.0180 MeV B) 76.16 MeV C) 11.381 MeV D) 7.616 MeV