Radiation causes ionization in the molecules in cells. This causes electrons to be removed from the atoms which forms ions or charged atoms. The ions formed can react with other atoms in the cell and causing damage which can break human DNA.
At low doses our cells can repair the damage caused by radiation. Out body does this everyday with the background radiation we are exposed to. At higher doses, the cells cannot repair the damage. They are either permanently changed or they die. High doses are up to 100rem. When cells are permanently damaged they can go on to produce abnormal cells when they divide and can become cancerous. An increase in radiation exposure results in an increase in the risk to develop cancer.
When someone is exposed to greater than 100rem of radiation the tissues in the body start to fail and not be able to perform basic functions. When people are exposed to greater than 300rem of radiation the body’s immune system is damaged and cannot therefore cannot fight off infections. Without medical attention, exposure to these high doses of radiation can cause death.
Non-Ionizing radiation does not damage the body the same way ionizing radiation does. Non-Ionizing radiation tends to cause chemical changes, heating and other molecular changes. It is important to be caution and follow safety regulations when working with radiation.