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    For Ionizing Radiation, Nonionizing Radiation, and Filtration, describe the following:
    a. types
    b. common uses
    c. specific effects on microbes, is it microbicidal?
    d. when not to use

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 7, 2022, 9:12 am ad1c9bdddf

    SOLUTION This solution is FREE courtesy of BrainMass!

    Ionizing radiation:
    a. Types: this is a method of controlling microbial growth. Ionizing radiation consist of gamma rays and X-rays. They are powerful and can penetrate the DNA to cause breakage of the DNA (1). It also contains electromagnetic radiation that produces electrons, hydroxyl radicals, and hydride radicals that damage DNA and protein of the cells (2).

    b. Common uses: They are used to regulate and control the growth of microorganisms in drugs, food, vaccines, medical plastics, surgical gloves, skin tissue grafts, and bone grafts (1). They are able to penetrate and sterilize materials even in outer wrappings (1).

    c. Microbicidal? Yes, since ionizing radiation can penetrate the DNA of bacteria and break the DNA, causing the bacteria to die completely (1).

    d. When not to use: Worker can be exposed to the ionizing radiation so it poses a risk of exposure to those to work with ionizing radiation.

    Nonionizing radiation:
    a. Type: They are longer wavelength and less energetic than ionizing radiation (1,2). Example of nonionizing radiation is ultraviolet light (UV). It causes thymine - thymine dimmers that inhibit correct DNA replication (1,2).

    b. Common uses: UV radiation is used to kill microbes by damaging their DNA, and form pyrimidine dimers in the DNA. The pyrimidine dimmers block DNA replication. UV is used to regulate the growth of microbes on non-living things such as food, water, air , dental offices, and even hospital operating rooms (1).

    c. Microbicidal ? Yes, UV can kill microbes by damaging their DNA, but the microbes must be exposed to UV light directly (2).

    d. When not to use: Do not use UV light on your skin. The exposure to UV light on human skins can cause wrinkles, sunburn, and skin cancer (1).

    a. Types: This is the mechanical method to "disinfect or sterilize gases and heat sensitive liquids by physically removing microbes" (1). The filtration method used to filter out bacteria and viruses required two filter size and type. Filters with pore size of 0.22-0.45 um are used to filter out bacterial cells, while filters with pore size of 0.01-0.22 um are used to filter out viruses (1).

    b. Common uses: Filter out microbes and bacteria. Filtration method is used to sterilize air, water, blood products, vaccines, drug, enzymes, and media (1). Filters such as "surgical masks and respirator filter are used to filter the air" (1).

    c. Microbicidal? No, the filtration method can only trap and remove the microbes; it does not kill the microbes and cannot remove some of the toxin from the microbes (1).

    d. When not to use: Do not used filtration if you want to completely kill the microbes.



    This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 7, 2022, 9:12 am ad1c9bdddf>