Share
Explore BrainMass

Fusion

Nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction that two or more atomic nuclei collide at a high speed and join to form a new type of atomic nucleus. Matter is not conserved in this process because some of the mass of the fusing nuclei is converted to photons which are released though a cycle. Fusion is the process that powers our Sun and the stars.

The fusion of two nuclei with lower masses than iron generally releases energy, while the fusion of nuclei heavier than iron absorbed energy. This is oppositely true for nuclear fission. When heavier elements fuse in the atmosphere the process gives rise to nucleosynthesis, the creation of heavy elements during events such as supernovae.

In order for fusion to occur, a substantial energy barrier of electrostatic forces must be overcome. At far distances, two nuclei will repel each other because of the repulsive electrostatic force between their positively charged protons. If the two nuclei’s can overcome to electrostatic repulsion and be brought close together fusion can occur.

For the energy to be produced from a fusion reaction to be useful it must meet the following criteria.
- Be exothermic
- Involve low Z nuclei
- Have two reactants
- Have two or more products
- Conserve both protons and neutrons

Fission and Fusion

Compare and contrast the processes of fusion and fission. Describe the challenges in harnessing fusion technology for domestic energy needs

Proton Fusion

See the attached file. The sun is powered mostly by the fusion of two protons into the following particles: H^1+ H^1→ H^2+e+ ν Classically for this reaction to happen, the protons must come close enough to each other to "touch". Assume the proton is a uniformly charged, solid sphere of radius rp = 1.5 x 10-18m and tha

Solar Core to Earth

Over 200 word response with reference that explains how energy reaches Earth from the solar core.

heat required to raise the temperature of water

Answer this question based on the following information: specific heat capacity of ice = 2,000 J/kg-C latent heat of fusion of water = 334,000 J/kg specific heat capacity of water = 4,000 J/kg-C After a 1 kg block of ice melts, the amount of heat required to raise its temperature to 10C is

Solving specific heat problems in physics

1. An iron all of 1500 gm, mass and temperature 100°C is dropped into the cavity of a large block of ice. If specific heat of iron is 0.11, how much ice will be melted? 2. How much heat is generated, if 230g of ice at is melted at 10°C find the resulting water boiled and formed into steam at 120°C, [Specific heat of ice, i

Physics: Heat

If we add 10 grams of steam at 100 C to and 0.5 grams of ice at 0 degree C to 170 grams of water at 25 C, what will be the final temperature of the mixture, assuming that all thermal exchanges take place within this system? The heats of vaporization and fusion for water are about 2250 J/gram and 335 J/gram.

Physics: Heat of unknown substance

See attached file for graph. 6. The graph at right shows the temperature of 350 grams of an unknown substance as it is cooled from a gas to a solid by extracting a constant amount of energy per minute. Assume that all the changes on the graph occur at round numbers. a. Which phase of the substance has the highest specific

Physics Problems: Sample Questions

Consider a hot air-balloon. The deflated balloon, gondola, and 2 passengers have a combined mass of 315 kg. When inflated, the balloon contains 871m^3 of hot air. Find the temperature (degrees C) of the hot air required to lift the balloon off the ground. The air outside the balloon has a temperature of 20.2 degrees C and a pres

Protron tunnelling

Please explain what proton tunneling is and how to compute the probability of tunnelling and the loss in energy as a result. Please give an example. I would like a very clear and complete explanation.

Fusion Reactions and Energy Releases

Match each fusion reaction with the correct energy release (given in MeV). 2.224 4.033 5.494 8.293 12.193 17.589 (2H + 2H --> 3H + 1H) 2.224 4.033 5.494 8.293 12.193 17.589 (1H + 2H --> 3He + gamma) 2.224 4.033 5.494 8.293 12.193 17.589 (1H + n --> 2H) 2.224 4.033 5.494 8.293 12.193 17.589 (2H + 3H --> 4He +

Nuclear Fusion Statements

Which of the following statements are true about nuclear fusion? Briefly justify the answers. 1. The larger nucleus that results from fusion has more mass than the total mass of the smaller nuclei that combined. 2. In a single reaction, a fusion reaction releases less energy than a fission reaction. 3. Fusion is easy to

Energy Released in a Fusion Reaction

10. Find the energy released in the fusion reaction 1 1H + 2 1H -> 3 2He + y. 11. The fusion reaction (2 1D) + (2 1D) -> (3 2He) + 1 0n releases 3.27 MeV of energy. If a fusion reactor operates strictly on the basis of this reaction, (a) how much energy could it produce by completely reacting 1 kg of deuterium?

Scientific Method, Galileo & History

Hello. Please help me with the following: 1. What harm can be done by reporting false or poor data in a scientific report ? How does the scientific method correct such errors and fraud ? 2. What observations did Galileo make that reinforced the heliocentric model ? Why did these observations contradict the geocentric model ?

Heat and Thermodynamics: Change of state

Please help with the following problem. Provide at least 400 words. Describe the phenomenon of latent heat with respect to the process of heating a block of ice to eventually create steam.

Total of twenty questions related to work, energy, power, simple pendulum, electricity, electric power, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy ,Celsius temperature, Kelvin temperature, specific heat, heat and Ideal gas law.

1. A force of 7.2 N acting on a 1.0-kg object initially at rest moves it through a parallel distance of 2.5 m. How much work is done on the object? 2. Neglecting friction, what is the speed of the object in Question 1 when it has moved 2.5 m? 3. A 0.10-kg ball is dropped from a height of 10 m and rebounds to a height

The Sun's Temperature

Do you think the Sun is gradually getting hotter or gradually cooler? Give a scientific explanation for the trend? If and when the Sun becomes a red giant star will it's Luminosity increase or decrease from today?

Heat Transfer and Insulated Thermos

Show ALL your work, including the equations used to solve the problems. An insulated Thermos contains 13cm^3 of hot coffee, at a temperature of 80.0ºC. You put in a 12.0-g ice cube at its melting point to cool the coffee. By how many degrees has your coffee cooled once the ice has melted? Treat the coffee as though it were p

Greco-Roman and Germanic fusion

After about 500 AD, Western Civilization became a "fusion" of the classical world (Greco-Roman civilization) and the Germanic peoples of northern and western Europe--how did this come about? a. What elements of Greco-Roman civilization survived to become part of the medieval world? b. How was European government, socia

Latent Heat: Melting of Ice

Calculate the latent heat of fusion from the heat balance equation. Compare this value with the value given in the textbook. 1. What would the temperature of the calorimeter mixture be if you added too much ice and not all of it melted? 2. What affect would there be on the calculated value of L if we read the final mixtu

Multiple choice questions on mechanics and heat & thermodynamics

Question 1 : At t=0, a wheel rotating about a fixed axis at a constant angular acceleration has an angular velocity of 2 rad/s. Two seconds later it has turned 5 complete revolutions. What is the angular acceleration of this wheel? multiple choice: a : 17 rad/s^2 b : 14 rad/s^2 c: 20 rad/s^2 d: 23 rad/s^2 Question 2 :

Final temperature of the mixture of steam and ice

Steam at 100C is added to ice at 0C.The mass of the steam is 10g.The mass of ice is 50g. What is the final temperature of the mixture? I know the conversion of steam to water is Ms(2.26x10^6J/kg) How does this problem work?

The Carnot Icemaker

Please do not place your response in a .pdf or .cdx format, but Word documents are okay. Thanks! Here's the actual problem: An ice-making machine inside a refrigerator operates in a Carnot cycle. It takes heat from liquid water at 0.0 degrees Celsius and rejects heat to a room at a temperature of 26.0 degrees Celsius. Supp

Working with rate of formation of ice in a lake

Find the time in which a layer of ice 3cm thick on the surface of a pond will increase its thickness by 1mm when the temperature of the surrounding air is -200 C. Thermal conductivity of ice = 0.005, Latent heat of ice = 80cal/g and the density of ice at 00 C = 0.91g/cm3