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Nuclear Particles

A nuclear particle is a unit of matter smaller than an atom. There are two types of subatomic particles: elementary particles and composite particles. Elementary particles are not made up of other particles whereas composite particles are. Nuclear physics is the study of how these particles interact.

In the standard model, the elementary particles include, six favors of quarks, up, down, bottom, top, strange and charm, six types of leptons, electrons, electron neutrino, muon, muon neutrino, tau and tau neutrino, twelve gauge bosons, the photon of electromagnetism, the three W and Z bosons of the weak force, and the eight gluons of the strong force, and the Higgs boson. There are various extensions of the standard model that predicts the existence of other elementary particles.

Composite particles, such as protons or atomic nuclei, are bound states of two or more elementary particles. They include all hadrons, a group composed of baryons and mesons. An example of a composite particle is a proton. A proton is made up of two up quarks and one down quark.

Categories within Nuclear Particles


Postings: 37

An isotope is a variant to a chemical element.

Nuclear Forces

Postings: 11

Nuclear forces are the force between two or more nucleons.


Two uniform spheres, each with mass M and radius R, touch one another. a). What is the magnitude of their gravitational force of attraction?

phase constant

Please see attached file for full problem description. What is the phase constant in equation 14.14 if the initial position of the oscillating particle is: a) 0 b) -A c) A d) A/2 (A is the amplitude) equation 14.14 is: x(t) = Acos(wt + pi(

Kinematics & Kinetics of Particles

A boy at A throws a ball 45o from the horizontal such that it strikes the slope at B. Determine the speed at which the ball is thrown and the time of flight. See attached file for full problem description.

Particle in Harmonic Motion

A particle moves in simple harmonic motion with a frequency of 2.20 Hz and an amplitude of 5.60 cm. Through what total distance does the particle move during one cycle of its motion?