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Alpha particles are made up of two protons and neutrons bound together into a particle. They are produced mainly during alpha decay but can be produced in other ways. The mass of an alpha particle is 6.644 x 10-27 kilograms with an electric charge of 2e. Alpha particles are identical to helium nuclei and therefore sometimes they are interchanged.

Alpha particles have zero new spin on them. However they generally have a kinetic energy of about MeV and a velocity of about 5% the speed of light. They are highly ionizing from particle radiation but have low penetration depth. They stop within a few centimeters in the air or by the skin. Therefore, alpha particles are not harmful to humans.

Alpha particles are emitted by all larger radioactive nuclei. These large radioactive nuclei include uranium, thorium, actinium, radium and the transuranic elements. The alpha decay process must have a minimum-size atomic nucleus that can support it. Element 52, tellurium, is the lightest element that is capable of alpha emission. The process of emitting alpha particles from a nucleus leaves it in an excited state.

Alpha particles are useful in many aspects of our everyday life. They are used in smoke detectors, they are used to power space probes and artificial heart pacemakers, static eliminators and in certain types of radiation cancer therapy.

Trophic Level, Diet Energy, Group IIA, Chemical Bonds & more

Describe the movement of electrons required to develop electrical current. Think about your energy intake today. Pick one food and identify the chain of energy that led to it. What trophic level do you eat from most? Where will the energy that you ingest eventually wind up? Why do people mistake what is in diet energy drin

Classical Treatment of Rutherford Scatter

Rutheford successfully used classical mechanics to account for the scattering pattern of alpha particles by heavy nuclei: he treated the alpha particle as a point mass that follows a hyperbolic trajectory under the repulsion of a fixed point nucleus. But the de Broglie view of the wave nature of particles raises some awkward qu

Railway Expansion

A welded railway line, of length 15 km, is laid without expansion joints in a desert where the night and day temperatures differ by 50 K. The cross-sectional area of the rail is 3.6*10^-3 m^2, alpha= 8*10^-6 K^-1, and Y =2*10^11 Nm^-2 (a) What is the difference in the night and day tension in the rail if it is kept at consta

Center of Mass of Cone, Cylindrical Coordinate System

We are given a cone of height H and angle alpha with constant density. We want to calculate the center of mass using triple integrals in cylindrical coordinates. This requires a description of the solid in such coordinates and the use of the element of volume in the same system of coordinates: a. Write the element of volume d

Solve: Alpha Particles Emitted

Please see the attached file. Provide step by step calculations for the problem. How many alpha particles are emitted per minute by 1cm^3 of 222^Rn monoatomic gas at a temperature of 27 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 100 kPa? Make use of PV - NkT where P = pressure of the gas, V = volume of the gas, N = number of atoms in

7 problems on statics and dynamics

Please refer to the attachment for complete questions (with figures/diagrams). 3.7) Compute the moment of the 100-lb force about A, (a) by using the definition of the moment of a force, (b) by resolving the force into horizontal and vertical components, (c) by resolving the force into components along AB and in the direction

Using the variational principle to estimate the ground state energy

A particle of mass m is in the one-dimentional potential given by V(x) = Kx^3 for x >= 0, there K is a positive constant. There is an infinite potential barrier at x = 0, so V(0) = infinity. Use the variational principle with the trial wave function psi(x) = xe^[-alpha x] to estimate the ground-state energy.

Physics: Models of Atom

Which of the following statements are true about the models of the atom? Supporting your answers with explanation. 1. Thomson's model of the atom depicted electrons distributed uniformly throughout a positively charged sphere. 2. In the Bohr model, specific energy levels correspond to specific radii for the electron orbits.

Rutherford Experiment

210Po is used as a source of 5.2 [MeV] alpha particles in a Rutherford experiment. The alpha particles are directed at a gold foil of thickness 2µm (2 x 10^6 meters) at a rate of 100000 particles per minute. The scattered particles are detected on a screen of area 1cm^2 at a distance of 12cm. Use the Rutherford formula to predi

Collision of alpha particle with lead nucleus

An alpha particle with kinetic energy 14.0 MeV makes a collision with a lead nucleus, but it is not "aimed" at the center of the lead nucleus, and has an initial nonzero angular momentum (with respect to the stationary lead nucleus) of magnitude L=(p0)b, where p0 is the magnitude of the initial linear momentum of the a

Internal Energy and Pressure of Relativistic Gasses

For zero mass particles, like neutrinos, the relativistic relationship between energy E and momentum p is E(p) = c|p|, where c is the speed of light. Calculate the pressure and energy of a classical relativistic zero mass gas as a function of density and termperature and show that pV = gE, where g is a numerical constant.

Motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field.

I cannot figure out what equations to use or how to set up the following problem. It just seems like there is some data missing that i need. Any insight as to where to start would really help! A radioactive source emits alpha-particles with kinetic energies of 4MeV. What must be the value of an applied magnetic field so th

Accelerated particles: maximum kinetic energies in a cyclotron

If a cylcotron is capable of accelerating protons to 100MeV, maximum. What are the "approximate" maximum kinetic energies to which deuterons and alpha particles can be accelerated? I feel its just a simple proportional mass and velocity difference but I wonder if the difference in charge in cylotron is also considered?

Rutherford observion of an alpha particle

Rutherford observed that an alpha particle (Q1 = 2 x 1.6 x 10^-19 coulomb) having a kinetic energy of 7.68 x 10 ^6 electron volts (7.68 x 10^6 x 1.6 x 10^-19 joule) rebounds backward in a head on collision with a gold nucleus (Q2 = 79 x 1.6 x 10^-19 coulomb). a. What is the distance of closest approach where the electrostatic p

Lagrangian and Hamiltonian Dynamics

A particle of mass m is constrained to move on a circle of radius R. This circle also rotates in space about a fixed point (P) on the circumference of the circle. The rotation of the circle is about an axis of rotation perpendicular to the plane of the circle and tangent to the circle, at point (P); the rotation is at a constant

Travelling from Earth to Mars & Between Atom Energy Levels

1. In the Bohr model of the atom, the energy of the electron depends only on one quantum number, n. In the Paschen series of the spectral wavelengths, the electronic transitions always terminate at the n=3 level. a. Calculate the energy of the electron in the n=3 level of hydrogen, in electron volts. b. What is the smallest po

Multiple choice questions on radioactivity

1. How many radioactive decay series exist in nature? a. 3 b. 1 c. 0 d. 2 e. 10 2. Of the following, which is not a magic number of protons? a. 82 b. 20 c. 50 d. 126 e. 8 3. In the nuclear transmutation, (attached formula) , what is the bombarding particle? a. A gamma photon b. An alpha particle c. A be

Electric field

An alpha particle (the nucleus of a helium atom) has a mass of 6.64x10-27kg and a charge of +2e. What are the (a)magnitude and (b)direction of the electric field that will balance the gravitational force on the particle? I need to know the step by step setup and answer for this problem given the above information. thank you

Expanding ideal gas

A sample of ideal gas is expanded to twice it original volume of 1.00m^3 in a quasi-static process for which P = alpha*V^2, with alpha = 5.00atm/m^6. How much work is done on the expanded gas? I know that work is the integral of - PdV but I can't seem to get the right answer. Can you help?

Buoyant force and surface value

Derive an expression for the buoyant force on a spherical balloon, submerged in water, as a function of the depth below the surface, the volume of the balloon at the surface, the pressure at the surface, and the density of the water. At what depth is the buoyant force half the surface value? I know that the Buoyant force is

Shooting the Breeze- Obtaining the Theta Angle

A student throws rocks from the roof of a building. All of the rocks are thrown with the same initial speed v_0 and from the same initial height y_0, but they are thrown with different angles with respect to the horizontal. Derive an expression for theta_1, the angle at which the rock will land if thrown horizontally. Express yo

Mass converted per hour, speed of alpha particle

1. A certain nuclear power plant is capable of producing 1.0 X 10^9 W of electric power. During operation of the reactor, mass is converted to energy. How much mass is converted per hour if the efficiency of the plant is 30%? 2. What must be the speed of an alpha particle that has the same momentum as a neutron traveling with

Unwinding Cylinder

Please do not place your response in a .pdf format, but Word documents are okay. Thanks! A cylinder with moment of inertia I about its center of mass, mass m, and radius r has a string wrapped around it which is tied to the ceiling. The cylinder's vertical position as a function of time is y(t). At time t=0 the cylinder is

Recoil Velocity of Polonium Nucleus after Alpha Decay

The nucleus of the polonium isotope 214Po (mass 214 u) is radioactive and decays by emitting an alpha particle (a helium nucleus with mass 4 u). Laboratory experiments measure the speed of the alpha particle to be 1.59*10^7 m/s . Assuming the polonium nucleus was initially at rest, what is the recoil velocity of the nucleus that

Decay by Alpha and Beta Particle Emission

1) An atom of an element with an atomic number of 95 and a mass number of 241 undergoes decay by emission of an alpha particle. What are the atomic number, mass number and name of the product atom? 2) An atom of 63Ni undergoes loss of a beta particle. What are the atomic number, mass number and name of the product atom?