Share
Explore BrainMass

Alpha

Alpha particles are made up of two protons and neutrons bound together into a particle. They are produced mainly during alpha decay but can be produced in other ways. The mass of an alpha particle is 6.644 x 10-27 kilograms with an electric charge of 2e. Alpha particles are identical to helium nuclei and therefore sometimes they are interchanged.

Alpha particles have zero new spin on them. However they generally have a kinetic energy of about MeV and a velocity of about 5% the speed of light. They are highly ionizing from particle radiation but have low penetration depth. They stop within a few centimeters in the air or by the skin. Therefore, alpha particles are not harmful to humans.

Alpha particles are emitted by all larger radioactive nuclei. These large radioactive nuclei include uranium, thorium, actinium, radium and the transuranic elements. The alpha decay process must have a minimum-size atomic nucleus that can support it. Element 52, tellurium, is the lightest element that is capable of alpha emission. The process of emitting alpha particles from a nucleus leaves it in an excited state.

Alpha particles are useful in many aspects of our everyday life. They are used in smoke detectors, they are used to power space probes and artificial heart pacemakers, static eliminators and in certain types of radiation cancer therapy.

Trophic Level, Diet Energy, Group IIA, Chemical Bonds & more

Describe the movement of electrons required to develop electrical current. Think about your energy intake today. Pick one food and identify the chain of energy that led to it. What trophic level do you eat from most? Where will the energy that you ingest eventually wind up? Why do people mistake what is in diet energy drin

Classical Treatment of Rutherford Scatter

Rutheford successfully used classical mechanics to account for the scattering pattern of alpha particles by heavy nuclei: he treated the alpha particle as a point mass that follows a hyperbolic trajectory under the repulsion of a fixed point nucleus. But the de Broglie view of the wave nature of particles raises some awkward qu

Railway Expansion

A welded railway line, of length 15 km, is laid without expansion joints in a desert where the night and day temperatures differ by 50 K. The cross-sectional area of the rail is 3.6*10^-3 m^2, alpha= 8*10^-6 K^-1, and Y =2*10^11 Nm^-2 (a) What is the difference in the night and day tension in the rail if it is kept at consta

Center of Mass of Cone, Cylindrical Coordinate System

We are given a cone of height H and angle alpha with constant density. We want to calculate the center of mass using triple integrals in cylindrical coordinates. This requires a description of the solid in such coordinates and the use of the element of volume in the same system of coordinates: a. Write the element of volume d

Calculations with Alpha Particles

Hi, I need assistance answering the following question about alpha particles moving in water and air. I have the question as one attachment and a second attachment containing useful information to use for this question.

Solve: Alpha Particles Emitted

Please see the attached file. Provide step by step calculations for the problem. How many alpha particles are emitted per minute by 1cm^3 of 222^Rn monoatomic gas at a temperature of 27 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 100 kPa? Make use of PV - NkT where P = pressure of the gas, V = volume of the gas, N = number of atoms in

How may alpha particles are admitted by 222^Rn monoatomic gas?

How many alpha particles are emitted per minute by 1cm^3 of 222^Rn monoatamic gas at a temperature of 27 degrees Celsius and a pressure of 100 kPa? Make use of PV=NkT where P=pressure of the gas, V=volume of the gas, N-number of atoms in the gas, T=temperature of the gas in kelvin, and k=Boltzman's constant = 1.38 x 10^ - 23 J K

Oscillator Force

2) A force Fext(t) = F0[ 1?exp(?((alpha)(t)) ] acts, for time t > 0, on an oscillator which is at rest at x=0 at time 0. The mass is m; the spring constant is k; and the damping force is ?b[(x)dot]. The parameters satisfy these relations: b = m*q , k = 4*m*q^2 (where q is a constant with units of inverse time)

Amount of Alpha Particles Emitted by Plutonium

From its atomic weight (239) and its half-life (24000 years) calculate how many alpha particles are emitted by 3.5 micrograms of plutonium over the course of a year. I'm not sure how to calculate the number of alpha particles with the given information.

Nuclear reactions for protons colliding

A relativistic proton collides head on with an orbital electron; calculate the maximum transferred energy. Show all work including derivation of equations used.

7 problems on statics and dynamics

Please refer to the attachment for complete questions (with figures/diagrams). 3.7) Compute the moment of the 100-lb force about A, (a) by using the definition of the moment of a force, (b) by resolving the force into horizontal and vertical components, (c) by resolving the force into components along AB and in the direction

Using the variational principle to estimate the ground state energy

A particle of mass m is in the one-dimentional potential given by V(x) = Kx^3 for x >= 0, there K is a positive constant. There is an infinite potential barrier at x = 0, so V(0) = infinity. Use the variational principle with the trial wave function psi(x) = xe^[-alpha x] to estimate the ground-state energy.

Expectation Value, Probability Density, Eigen Function

See the attached file. 1. What is meant by an expectation value? 2. What does it mean when we say that 'mod Psi-square' is a 'probability density', as opposed to a probability? 3. What is the difference between an operator that operates on an eigen function and one that operates on any function? 4. What is meant when

Physics: Models of Atom

Which of the following statements are true about the models of the atom? Supporting your answers with explanation. 1. Thomson's model of the atom depicted electrons distributed uniformly throughout a positively charged sphere. 2. In the Bohr model, specific energy levels correspond to specific radii for the electron orbits.

Rutherford Experiment

210Po is used as a source of 5.2 [MeV] alpha particles in a Rutherford experiment. The alpha particles are directed at a gold foil of thickness 2µm (2 x 10^6 meters) at a rate of 100000 particles per minute. The scattered particles are detected on a screen of area 1cm^2 at a distance of 12cm. Use the Rutherford formula to predi

Electrostatics: Solving for E and the Empty Set

Please answer the following: Question: A sphere of radius a has a radial polarization given by P = (alpha)r^nr(hat) where alpha and n are constants and n is >/= 0. Find the volume and surface densities of bound charge. Find E outside and inside the sphere. Verify that your results for E satisfy the appropriate boundary condi

Collision of alpha particle with lead nucleus

An alpha particle with kinetic energy 14.0 MeV makes a collision with a lead nucleus, but it is not "aimed" at the center of the lead nucleus, and has an initial nonzero angular momentum (with respect to the stationary lead nucleus) of magnitude L=(p0)b, where p0 is the magnitude of the initial linear momentum of the a

Give the atomic number, mass number and product element

Give the atomic number, mass number and product element name when: A. The isotope of atomic number 75 and mass number 182 emits an alpha particle. B. The isotope of atomic number 74 and mass number 188 emits a beta particle.

Internal Energy and Pressure of Relativistic Gasses

For zero mass particles, like neutrinos, the relativistic relationship between energy E and momentum p is E(p) = c|p|, where c is the speed of light. Calculate the pressure and energy of a classical relativistic zero mass gas as a function of density and termperature and show that pV = gE, where g is a numerical constant.

Motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field.

I cannot figure out what equations to use or how to set up the following problem. It just seems like there is some data missing that i need. Any insight as to where to start would really help! A radioactive source emits alpha-particles with kinetic energies of 4MeV. What must be the value of an applied magnetic field so th

Accelerated particles: maximum kinetic energies in a cyclotron

If a cylcotron is capable of accelerating protons to 100MeV, maximum. What are the "approximate" maximum kinetic energies to which deuterons and alpha particles can be accelerated? I feel its just a simple proportional mass and velocity difference but I wonder if the difference in charge in cylotron is also considered?

Electrical Potential of two point charges

Magnitude of Electrical Potential. See attached file for full problem description. 23. An alpha particle, starting from rest, acquired a speed of 1.38 x 10^5 m/s whiles moving through an electric potential difference. a. The magnitude of the electric potential was b. the final energy of the alpha particle, in electron volt

rotating angle during the time t/3

An object starting from rest begins to rotate with constant angular acceleration (alpha sign). In a time t the object rotates through an angle (delta sign) . Through what angle did the object rotate in the time t/3? (delta sign) (delta sign)/2 (delta sign)/3 (delta sign)/9

Rutherford observion of an alpha particle

Rutherford observed that an alpha particle (Q1 = 2 x 1.6 x 10^-19 coulomb) having a kinetic energy of 7.68 x 10 ^6 electron volts (7.68 x 10^6 x 1.6 x 10^-19 joule) rebounds backward in a head on collision with a gold nucleus (Q2 = 79 x 1.6 x 10^-19 coulomb). a. What is the distance of closest approach where the electrostatic p

Calculations on Ferris Wheels

A Ferris wheel rotates at an angular velocity of 0.24 rad/s. Starting from rest, it reaches its operating speed with an average angular acceleration of 0.030 rad/s^2. How long does it take the wheel to come up to operating speed?