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Files

Files on a computer are the electronic version of paper files that would lie stacked up to eye-level height on an office desk or take up endless cabinets in a chilled records room in the 40s. Like paper documents, files are ways of storing and passing information along. In computer terms, they are durable in that they exist beyond the running of a current program.

Today, almost all operating systems organizes their files into one-dimensional arrays of bytes. The format of a file can be found by looking at it's file extension - e.g. .jpegs are images and .txt are text files. Many programs have file extensions entirely their own, but file formats created by the most popular programs are usually widely supported. For example, a Microsoft Word .doc file can be read by many non-Microsoft programs. Most file formats also keep a few bytes for tracking basic information about themselves, such as creation dates, last edit dates, size, etc. This type of information is called metadata

25 common file extension icons

Example file extensions

The most fundamental two file operations are read and write. Reading here, simply means opening the file (you may have come across files marked as 'read-only' which is a way of preventing interference with the file's data) while writing means changing the contents of the file. Write operations are done at the time of saving a file which, with the recent move toward auto-saving, has become a very often and speedy occurrence. However, depending on the file format, one may also delete, move, grow, shrink, translate and perform many other types of operations on a file. When creating a program, it is important to keep in mind which operations will be needed in the files your program will be working with, so you can decide or create a suitable file type and system of manipulating them.

Excel Data Extraction

b. Filter the list and start the results in cell H6. You are to display sales which were greater than fifty-five units and whose per-unit price was no larger than $3.15 during 2005. Display in the body of the table the total sales for each salesperson. c. Filter the list and copy to v2 to display those 2012 return were great

Computing the One-Hop Transmission Delay 2

Consider the attached image, in which a single router is transmitting packets, each of length L bits, over a single link with transmission rate R Mbps to another router at the other end of the link. Suppose that the packet length is L= 12000 bits, and that the link transmission rate along the link to router on the right is R

Compute the Internet Checksum Value for Two 16-bit Words

Consider the two 16-bit words (shown in binary) below. Recall that to compute the Internet checksum of a set of 16-bit words, we compute the one's complement sum [1] of the two words. That is, we add the two numbers together, making sure that any carry into the 17th bit of this initial sum is added back into the 1's place of the

Excel help with Grade Chart

Using your cursor, highlight the course names and the data that is next to them. Click on Insert > Charts, and select "Column Chart." Click on the chart, and select "Cut." Go to the bottom of your spreadsheet, and select Sheet 2. Click on a cell within that sheet. On Sheet 2, paste the chart you just copied. On the tabs at

Transporation model in excel, using solver

The Southern Rail Company ships coal by rail from three coal mines to meet the demand requirements of four coal depots. The following table shows the distances from the mines to the various depots and the availabilities and requirements for coal. Determine the best shipment of coal cars to minimize the total miles traveled by th

Unix command to sort a file based on a certain column numerically

Please see the attached file for the complete problem. Please help me with this programming question: Create a single command string that will modify the file called myfile and change all occurrences of the ! to a :. The command string must also sort the file numerically on the GID field and then save the output to a file cal

Calculations of Database Characteristics

A file has r=20,000 STUDENT records of fixed-length. Each record has the following fields: NAME (30 bytes), SSN (9 bytes), ADDRESS (40 bytes), PHONE (9 bytes), BIRTHDATE (8 bytes), SEX (1 byte), MAJORDEPTCODE (4 bytes), MINORDEPTCODE (4 bytes), CLASSCODE (4 bytes, integer), and DEGREEPROGRAM (3 bytes). An additional byte is used

How can I share a large computer file?

You are sitting at your desk at work, using your laptop computer. The boss calls an emergency meeting for you and several coworkers, and asks everyone to bring his or her laptop computer. When you get to the meeting room, the boss wants to download an important file from his laptop to all your coworker's laptops. List three pos

Sequential, Indexed and Hash Files

Explain one advantage that a. a sequential file has over an indexed file b. a sequential file has over a hash file c. an indexed file has over a sequential file d. an indexed file has over a hash file e. a hash file has over a sequential file f. a hash file has over an indexed file

Internet Speeds: LAN and WAN

Consider the following two scenarios (1) two computers are connected to a LAN using a total of twenty feet of cable, and (2) two computers are connected over the Internet and are 8000 miles from each other. Now imagine that the two computers in each scenario need to exchange 1000 messages between themselves in order to transfer

Load Data Local Infile Problem with MYSQL

See the attached file(s). A database called "genomicdb" in MYSQL server with two tables: "gene" and "location" is created. The tables are supposed to be populated with data from .txt files. One of the files, "gene.txt", works fine and populates fine in the table. But the other file, "location.txt", is skipping rows. Below is t

Coding in Java

The history teacher at your school needs help grading a True/False test. The students' IDs and test answers are stored in a file. The first entry in the file contains the answers to the test form: TFFTFFTTTTFFTFTFTFTT Every other entry in the file is the student's ID, followed by a blank, followed by the student's respons

Counting uppercase letters in a file

I need to count the number of uppercase letters in the given file "File.txt". Please help me with Bash command(s) to achieve this. File.txt: ctctatctgcggcgtgtggcggcgagATGTCTCACAGGAAATTCTCAGCTCCCAGGCATGGGTCCTTGGGCTTCCTGCCTCGCAAGCGCAGCAGCCGGCATCGTGGGAAAGTGAAGAGCTTCCCTAAGGATGACGCTTCCAAGCCCGTTCACCTCACAGCCTTTCTGGGTTACAAGGCTGG

Bash Script

I have many files in current directory. I want to determine which files contain the text "atg" on the second line, and then copy those files to the directory atg_start.fa . Please guide me with a Bash script code fragment that will help me achieve the goal.

Complications Arise in Time-Sharing Systems

What complications could arise in a time-sharing system if two processes require access to the same file at the same time? Are there cases in which the file manager should grant such requests? Are there cases in which the file manager should deny such requests?

Design a relational database in MS Access 2010

Design a relational database containing information about music performers, their recordings, and the composers of the music they recorded. The following elements must be included: - Database file contains at least three tables. - Relationships between the tables are shown. - Each table contains three or more attributes.

Information technology question

XYZ Inc. has a small office with 80 users in California. The office employs a file and print server that caters to user requests. Recently users have complained that it takes a lot of time to retrieve files from the server. In addition users have also complained that at times it takes a while to service print requests. A n

HTML Page to Submit Email with User Data

Create a HTML page using the following guidance. 1. The following tags are used: fieldset, form, input, label, legend, optgroup, option, textarea, button, select. 2. The webpage contains a form that collects information from the user and emails it to an email address. 3. All web pages used are styled using a common exte

Creating and Validating HTML files

Create a HTML page that must satisfy the following requirements: 1. Document Validates as XHTML 1.0 Strict. 2. The page is titled with the student's name. 3. All of the following tags are used: p, b, i, hr 4. 3 of the following tags are used: h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6, br 5. Code Comments are used to identify the location o

Visual C-Sharp program for an Ice Cream Shop

Create a Visual C-Sharp program for an Ice Cream Shop. The program will store data about ice cream cones and customers. Create a Cone class that includes a choice of ice cream or yogurt, the flavor, the number of scoops and type of cone. This class should also include static data members for the cost per scoop (.50), cost p

Professional Issues in Computing

Would you help me to get started with the following: Describe how the two types of assets are valued for balance sheet purposes, using the following assets owned by a company that writes and sells software packages (about 500 words): a. The company has a stock of 500 user manuals for version 1 of a "package" version 2 of

RAM and hard drive space requirement of a software package

When you buy a new software package, why does it state the minimum RAM and hard drive space your computer must have for you to run this program? If your computer does not have RAM, what types of files will you be unable to open, and why?

Why would or would not you use Internet storage?

You would like to save the digital pictures you took on vacation onto your hard drive, but it would take up too much storage space. You have heard you can increase your computer's storage capacity by using Internet storage. Explain what is Internet storage. Write down all the reasons why you would or would not use Internet s

Recommend a network design for a client that has 50 remote locations.

Recommend a network design for a client that has 50 remote locations in addition to a central headquarters. Half of the remote locations are required to connect or stay on line with central headquarters 6 to 8 hours a day and send large files back and forth which consist of date, graphics and product design information includin

Server of Local Hospital

Discuss the file system that will be installed in the server of your local hospital to support remote access of information by the hospital's doctors while they are using their mobile devices such as cellular phones or PDAs.

How to use command line options in Bash Shell Script

Create a script that will allow the user to enter one of several choices from the command line. The specific requirements are as follows: 1. Copy one file to another. The user enters the source and destination file to copy to and from. The script shall handle the following cases: a. Source file name specified does not exist.

Java Programming deploying Inheritance

Define a class named Document that contains an instance variable of type String named text that stores any textual content for the document. Create a method named toString that returns the text field and also include a method to set this value. Next, define a class for Email that is derived from Document and includes member v