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Cell Differentiation

Cell differentiation is a crucial and continuous process in multicellular organisms which allows for cell specialization. Both animals and plants have cells which can differentiate into all of the cells required by an adult organism. In animals these cells are embryonic stem cells and in higher plants these cells are termed meristematic cells. Furthermore, only the zygote of a mammal contains blastomeres, cells capable of differentiating into any cell type including placental tissue.

All of an organism’s cells contain the same DNA and this DNA sequence is not altered during cell differentiation. Rather, cells become different through various mechanisms controlled by genes. For example, in different tissues, different genes are expressed and this influences the types of cells present.

However, all cells do express identical genes, known as housekeeping genes. These genes are needed for processes such as metabolism and for producing proteins for mechanisms such as replication. Even though housekeeping genes are present in all cells, their level of expression can vary. For example, in red and white muscle cells, this difference in expression regulates their varying activity levels. Furthermore, the control of this gene expression occurs at a multitude of levels, such as the post-transcriptional level and/or mRNA degradation level, to name a few controls.

Additionally, in the mammalian system, three different cell types exist: germ-line cells, somatic cells and stem cells. Germ-line cells are needed to produce haploid gametes, somatic cells are diploid cells and stem cells are able to become very specialized over infinite periods of division.

Cell differentiation is an essential process because it allows for the production of cells capable of being used for various functions. Although the mechanisms of differentiation and gene control are rather complex, this discussion provides a basic overview on this subject matter. 

Hydrogels in stem cell differentiation

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Bone remodeling relating to homeostasis is assessed.

Julia has just started a weight-lifting program. As she lifts a dumbbell, her muscles contract Describe and explain how muscle contraction works at the molecular level: How do actin and myosin interact in a sarcomere to bring about muscle contraction? What roles do ATP and calcium play? Describe the

Constantly exposed to many infectious patients

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Fluorescent Proteins

Give three specific examples of a property that was improved by mutation of the DsRed. These must be three different types of improvements and for each example you should refer to a different mutant FP. So for example, DsRed --> mRFP --> mGrape1 / mStrawberry etc...

I cell disease

1. Children with I-cell disease ("I" for "Inclusion bodies") synthesize perfectly good lysosomal enzymes, but secrete them outside the cell instead of sorting them to lysosomes. The mistake occurs because the cells lack GlcNAc-P-transferase, which is required to create the mannose-6-phosphate marker that is essential for p

Stem Cell

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Molecular cell

1. If two cells are 0.1um apart could they be visualized as two separate cells by a lighy microscope? Why? Why does light of a shorter wavelength increase the resolution of a microscope. 2. Does margarine contain more saturated lipids than vegetable oil from which it is made? Why is the oil liquid while margarine solid?

Various questions on cells are included.

1. Most cells are very small. What physical and metabolic contraints limit cell size? 2. What problems would an enormous cell encounter? 3. What adaptions might help a very large cell to survive? These areas are briefly explored.

Generation of Diversity

A) Why could gene arrangement be detrimental to lymphocyte survival but indispensable for host integrity? b) Explain the roles of promotors, enhancers, and silencers as they pertain to immunoglobulin gene expression.

H-Y antigen, AMH, and Testosterone

Please give basic explanation of the roles of the H-Y antigen, AMH, and Testosterone in the differentation of the internal and external genitalia of the male.

Cell Study

A. Is ethane (C2H6) a carbohydrate? Why or why not? b. What are the three parts of the cell theory? A. B. C.

Molecular Mechanisms Are Thought to Control Cell Fate

What molecular mechanisms are thought to control cell fate, particularly the differentiation of neuronal precursor cells into either neurons or glia? Please be thorough and cite your source, so I can conduct further reading.

Endocrine System

Matching: Match the following hormones to the correct descriptions. a. steroid hormones b. peptide hormones 1. ___ lipid-soluble molecules derived from cholesterol; can diffuse directly across the lipid bilayer of a target cell's plasma membrane. 2. ___ various peptides, polypeptides, and gly

REproduction

The midcycle surge of LH that triggers ovulation also induces the formation of a (1) ____ _______ in the ovary. This yellowish, glandular structure forms by cell differentiation among (2) _________________ cells left behind in the follicle. Secretions from the (1) influence the rest of the cycle. The corpus luteum secretes (3

Stem Cells

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Comparative Anatomy is expressed.

A. During early development, a snake embryo was exposed to a toxin that interferes with normal migration and differentiation of mesoderm. Name the major structures of the integument most affected by this exposure and how each structure is affected. b. What would be the effect of this type of exposure on the cranial skeleton

Species

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The Relative Sizes of Cells

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