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Progression of fluorescent proteins

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Give three specific examples of a property that was improved by mutation of the DsRed. These must be three different types of improvements and for each example you should refer to a different mutant FP.

So for example, DsRed --> mRFP --> mGrape1 / mStrawberry etc.

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Making a better fluorescent protein is usually achieved by stepwise point mutations that improve the over all effect of the protein. In your example dsRED was the initial form and the subsequent versions (RFP, Grape etc) are improvements on the properties ideal for a fluorescent fusion ...

Solution Summary

Discussion of the differences between fluorescent proteins and the properties in creating these proteins.

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Explain the experiments in the following attached paper: "Telomere dysfunction promotes non-reciprocal translocations and epithelial cancers in mice"

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(1) What is telomerase and what is it's role

(2) Phenotypes of p53 knockout in mouse and humans- how do they differ?

(3) Difference between carcinoma and sarcoma

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(1) Spectral karyotyping

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