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    Constantly exposed to many infectious patients

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    A. Doctors and nurse are constantly exposed to many infectious patients. Why are doctors and nurses not continuously ill?

    B. Why is the lymphatic system a "highway" for the spread of certain metastatic cancers?

    C. Erythrocyte-structure and function
    Erythrocytes (mature red blood cells) lose their mitochondria, nucleus, ribosomes and many cytoplasmic enzymes during development. How does this affect the shape of the cell? How does its structure relate to its function?

    D.Humoral versus cell mediated immunity
    Describe humoral immunity and cell-mediated immunity. Include in your answer the types of immune cells involved in each, the location of antibodies and receptors that bind foreign antigens, and the ways in which invading cells are destroyed.

    Please provide references

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    Solution Preview

    A. Doctors and nurse are constantly exposed to many infectious patients. Why are doctors and nurses not continuously ill?
    Doctors and nurses, in general, keep precautions against the infectious diseases. The other possibility is that they may develop immunity against infectious diseases during their course of interactions with the patients.

    B. Why is the lymphatic system a "highway" for the spread of certain metastatic cancers?
    Metastasis most commonly occurs by way of the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. Just like normal cells, cancer cells must have a blood supply in order to function. They have access to the bloodstream just as healthy cells do. This access allows detached malignant cells from the tumor to enter the bodies' general bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, the cancer cells now have access to every portion of the body. The lymphatic system has its own channels throughout the body like the circulatory system, through which a malignant cell can travel. That is why the lymphatic system is a "highway" for the spread of certain metastatic cancers.

    C. Erythrocyte-structure and function
    Erythrocytes (mature red blood cells) lose their mitochondria, nucleus, ribosomes and many ...

    Solution Summary

    The expert examines doctors and nurses constantly exposed to infectious patients. The erythrocyte-structure and function is examined.

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