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Biological Chemistry

GRE subject Biochem

Discuss the feasibility of using methylation analysis to distinguish between each of the following pairs of carbohydrates: A) Maltose and Trehalose B) Maltose and Amylose C) Amylose and Cellulose

Forming Disaccharides

Question: How many different possible disaccharides can be formed between the pyranose forms od D-galactose and D-glucose? How many are non-reducing? I am really stuck on this question. I don't really understand these concepts at all.

Inhibitors: Irreversible and Reversible

Question: It is possible to distinguish between an irreversible inhibitor and a classical mixed type reversible inhibitor by measuring Vmax of the enzymatic reaction as a function of [E]t in the absence and presence of the inhibitor. What does the slope represent in each case? What does the X-axis intercept represent in

Analysing Properties of Pancreatic Serine Proteases

A major difficulty in investigating the properties of pancreatic serine proteases is that these enzymes, being proteins, are self digesting. The problem is less severe for solutions of chymotrypsinthan than for solutions of elastase or trypsin. Suggest an explantion for this observation? (Do not consider the zymogen activ

Net Charge of a Protein and Temperature

The table below indicates approximate values for these at 25C. For reference, the delta H(ionization) for Tris is 47kJ/mole. Group deta H (ionization)(kJ/mole) Asp 3.9 Glu 0 Lys 48 Arg 48 His 28 N-term 40 C- term 0 How will the net charge of a typical protein change upon lowering the temperature from 37C to 4C, base

Biophysics - Calculating deltaG

In one day the average person secretes about 2.5 litres of gastric juice into the stomach. The pH of the cells in the stomach lining that perform the secretion is about 7 (the same as for all cells) and the pH of the stomach is about 1. Thus, H+ ions must be moved against an H+ gradient. The free energy change for moving molecul

Energy Span of the Respiratory Chain

Please see the attached document. Thanks. Energy Span of the Respiratory Chain: Electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain may be represented by the net reaction equation: NADH + H+ + ½ O2 H2O + NAD+ (a) Calculate the value of ∆E'0 for the net reaction of mitochondr

Carbonic Anhydrase: Calculate Turnover Number

Please help with the following problem. Provide step by step calculations. Carbonic anhydrase of red blood cells, which has a molecular weight of 30,000, is among the most active known enzymes. It catalyzes the reversible hydration of CO2, which is important for the transport of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Single enzyme that will breakdown all proteins,lipids, and carbs??

A friend of yours has just received a new dietary supplement purchased online. The bottle states that the single enzyme it contains will break down all proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates in food we eat into smaller easily digestible pieces. the bottle also states that the enzyme is an "organic protein." has your friend been mis

Cleaning Products, Proteins and Macromolecules

Please help with the following problem. You are the owner of a company that sells cleaning products. The people in research and development have two new products for you to review. The first is a type of hand soap that they say cuts grease because "it is from lipid and like dissolves like." The second is a laundry detergent

Essay queation regarding a food manufacturers claim of having a fat free cake mix.

A food manufacturer is advertising a new cake mix as fat free. Scientists at the US FDA are testing the product to see if it truly lacks fat. hydrolysis of the cake mix yeilds glucose, fructose, glycerol, anumber of amino acids, and several kinds of molecules with long hydrocarbon chains. Further analysis shows that most of the

Estimating total body weight

If I had a body mass of 56 kg how would I get an estimate of my total body weight? I need a full calculation and what the method is called. Also, I have read that D2O IS used in some experiments to calculate tbw in kgs. Can you explain this process fully to me? The article I have read is 'Rapid measurement of deuterium conten

Biochemical Synthesized Pathways

"A branched biochemical pathway synthesizes two related essential amino acids D and F. A mutant defective for enzyme 2 will grow on minimal medium supplemented with which compounds?" The picture drawn with this problem looks something like this (I'll also attach a Word file in case this is unclear: 1

Tetrazolium test for determining viability of seeds

The performance of a seed can be determined by studying its germination and viability potential. One of the most significant advances in seed testing technology in recent years is the topographical tetrazolium method.

Productivity of cell culture

A batch animal cell culture has a productivity of 1.8 g/L*day, with a MUmax=0.5 days, a 10% inoculums and a turnaround time of 5 hours. If a continuous culture could operate at a dilution rate of 90% MUmax, what would be the productivity?

Question about Cell signaling

CA2+, IP3, and cAMP have all been described as second messengers. In what ways are their mechanisms of action similar? In what ways are they different? If you were comparing the molecular structure of kinesin and dynein, which part (heads or tails) would you expect to be most similar between them? Why?

An explanation of NAD and FAD

Please help answer the following questions. Provide at least 300 words in the solution. What are NAD and FAD? How do their roles differ? Which is found in greater amounts?