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Biological Chemistry

Net ATP Generation From 14CH3-COOH

14CH3-COOH is fed to microorganisms during an experiment. Trace the 14C through the citric cycle. How many ATP molecules can be generated from 1 mol of this substance? (The conversion of acetate to acetyl-CoA required the consumption of 2 ATP.)

What is the yield of ATP

What is the yield of ATP when each of the following substrates is completely oxidized to CO2 by a mammalian cell homogenate? Assume that glycolysis, the citric cycle and oxidative phosphorylation are fully active. a) Pyruvate b) NADH c) Fructose 1,6-biphosphate d) Glucose e) Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (Plea

ATP Production From Oxidization Of Ethanol

Ethanol is oxidized in the liver to form acetate, which is converted to acetyl-CoA. Determine how many molecules of ATP are produced from 1 mol of ethanol. Note that 2 mol of NADH are produced when ethanol is oxidized to form acetate.

Concentration/Photometry

Using a spectrophotometer set at 400 nm, an absorbance reading of 0.050 was obtained for a solution of p-nitrophenol at pH 6.5. The molar extinction coefficient of p-nitrophenol 21500 M-1cm-1 and the pka for p-nitrophenol is 7. What is the total concentration of p-nitrophenol in the experimental solution.

Finding the Amount of Phenol Red in Micrograms

Calculation of amount of phenol red in micrograms present in 3ml of the solution, you will need to use the following data: the concentration of the unknown 5.0 micromoles, volume = 3ml, MW of phenol red = 376.4g.

Net charge on peptide

Consider this peptide: Phe-Glu-Ser-Met What is the net charge of this peptide at ph=1 What is the net charge of this peptide at ph=7

Number of Glucose Molecles in Mycoplasma

Mycoplasmas are the smallest living cells. They are spherical and have a diameter of about 0.33 μm (radius of mycoplasmas = 0.165 μm)a. (a)Glucose is the major energy source of mycoplasma cells. Its concentration within such cells is 0.1 mM. Calculate the number of glucose molecules within a single cell. (b) The fi

Agarose gel electrophoresis

When digested DNA is analysed using agarose gel electrophoresis the total size of fragments sometimes does not add up to the size of the original DNA molecule. How can this be explained and how can this be seen in ethidium bromide stained agarose gels?

Enzyme and Endocrine Disruptor Clarifications

Which of these apply to Enzymes A. The majority of chemical reactions in our bodies do not require enzymes. B. Enzymes are functional proteins C. Enzymes get used up as part of a reaction D. Cyto chrome P-450 is an example of an enzyme that helps to oxidize chemicals in the body. E. Biotransformation of toxins could not o

Mutagens

A friend insists that all mutagens are dangerous. How would you respond?

An Investigation of Fermentaion In Yeast: Determination of Ethanol Uptake

I carried out the practical shown in the attachment, and am struggling with the calculations, Can anyone please explain what I need to do? As there are different calculations for different bits I am submitting separate post for each bit. Is there anyone who can show my how to determine ethanol formed? The model answers from

Distinctive Parts of a Wheat Kernel

The three distinctive parts of the wheat kernel are the a. germ, the endosperm and the bran b. bran, the flour and the endosperm c. flour, the bran and the germ d. floor, the bran and the starch

Determining Km and Vmax

I have made a lineweaver-burk graph with some data, but I don't know how to determine Vmax and Km from it? Would you please give me an example of how to do it. Please make a lineweaver-graph with some values and tell me how to determine Km and Vmax. I can figure out the slope from the graph, but cannot figure out Y and x in Y

Using Beer's Law to Calculate Glucose Concentrations

I have a series of protein free patient blood samples at time; 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 mins. I also have a standard sample. I have measured the absorbance of these samples; 0.655, 0.717, 0.689, 0.430, 0.852, 0.477 respectively. Standard sample 0.760 The glucose concentration in the standard test tube is 0.278 mmole/L. Using Beer

Amino acid displays a free amino group in the peptide

Dear OTA, I have 2 multiple questions as attached. I have done those but have some doubts. The questions are in red and my answer is in black. Need to get explanation why the option B in #61 is wrong (heavy references) and why option A in #53 is wrong (also references) Basically I need to know why only 1 option is good for

Biochemistry and Molecular Characteristics

Question #1: (1 point) In the urea cycle, the molecule that is synthesized in the cytosol and transported to the mitochondrial matrix for subsequent reactions is a.) citrulline b.) ornithine c.) argininosuccinate d.) aspartate e.) carbamoyl-phosphate Question #2: (1 point) Inosine 5'-phosphate is a precursor to which

Equilibrium Constant for the Given Reaction

A two electron transfer reaction you are studying has a standard state standard reduction potential (Eo') on 0.137V at 37C. What is the equilibrium constant for the reaction (Keq') at 37C?

Standard reduction potential for fumarate

The standard reduction potential (Eo') for the reduction of fumarate is +0.03V. The Eo' for the reduction of FAD in a given protein that accepts the electrons from succinate is -0.40V. Given the reaction: succinate + FAD==fumarate + FADH2 Caluculate Eo' for the reation

Calculation of Fractional Saturation of Protein in GDP / GTP

Guanyl nucleotide regulatory proteins (N) alter cell function based on the type of guanyl nucleotide occupying the nucleotide site on the protein. The affinity of this site for guanyl nucleotides is to a certain extent under hormonal control. Given a Ka of the site for guanyl nucleotides of 3 x 10^7 M in the presence of hormon

Energy Required by Na-K Pump to Move 2 Na+ and 3 K+ Ions

Problem: How much energy is needed for the Na/K pump to move 3 Na out and 2 K in when Nai (Na inside)= 9.2mM, Nao (outside)= 115, Ki (K inside)= 135mM and Ko (K outside)= 3mM? Include the effects of membrane potential; it will have to be calculated based on the given ion concentrations and PNa/Pk of 0.013.

Calculation of pH Gradient Required to Convert ADP to ATP

Calculate the pH gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane that is necessary to drive the ATPase reaction in the direction of ATP synthesis under steady state conditions at 25°C where ATP=10^-5 M ADP= 10^-3 M Pi=2 x 10^-2 M Also- do not ignore the effect of the membrane potential!

Beta-Oxidation of Odd and Even Carbon Fatty Acids

1 BCH-100 Fall 2007 BLH #13 (4 points) Question #1: (0.8 point) How many acetyl CoA's will come from a 12 carbon acyl-CoA? a.) 5 b.) 6 c.) 7 d.) 12 e.) none Question #2: (0.8 point) How many acetyl CoA's will come from a 13 carbon acyl-CoA? a.) 5 b.) 6 c.) 7 d.) 12 e.) none Question #3: (0.8 point) How many p

Flow of carbon atom from triacylglycerols to glucose

Although animals do not have glyoxylate cycle its is still possible to find radioactively labelled carbon atoms from triacylglycerols incorporated into glucose. What are the reasons for this to occur? And if we have to make a flow diagram to show this...how will the series of reaction take place.

Fumarase Deficiency

Fumarase deficiency is an extremely rare disease in humans. People with this disease can survive although they are significantly affected. a) Given the importance of fumarase to the citric acid cycle how is it possible for people with fumarase deficiency to produce adequate ATP for survival? b) what would be the overall

Enzyme//Inhibitor

The following kinetic data was obtained using a substrate and an inhibitor. Find Km and Vmax for the substrate in mM and mM/min, then determine the type of inhibition and determine the Ki or Ki's. [S] mM [I] mM Rate mM/min 10 0 600 20 0 667 30 0 692 40 0 706 50 0 714 60 0 720 10000 0 750 10 30 273 20 30 400 30 30 4