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Biological Chemistry

Trisaccharide and Sugar Properties

Provide the complete & accurate systematic name for this molecule. Be sure to include the correct names, in order, of the sugar residues, the correct numeric linkage for the glycosidic bonds, and any necessary information about anomeric carbons. See attached file for trisaccharide molecular formula. The first monosacchari

Scissile Bond

If the following peptide was the substrate for Carboxypeptidase A. Which of the indicated red arrows correctly identifies the scissile bond? See attached file for full problem description.

Catalytic Mechanism of Carboxypeptidase A

1) Carboxypeptidase A, a zinc-containing enzyme, hydrolyzes the C- terminal peptide bonds of polypeptides and/or proteins. In the enzyme- substrate complex, the zinc ion is coordinated to three enzyme side chains, the carbonyl oxygen of the scissile peptide bond, and a water molecule. A plausible model for the enzyme's reaction

Beta Glucosidase Activity Assay

I have followed the procedure that you provided to determine the activity of the beta glucosidase, however what I am unsure of is how the rate is calculated? In order for me to establish the rate, I followed your instructions however incubated the enzyme/buffer and PNPG solution for different times, ranging from 0-16 minut

Making a dilution

Make the following dilution: a working concentration of 100 ml 15 U/uL from an enzyme stock of 756,431 U/uL. Will you use a serial dilution? Why or Why not?

Effect on PAGE gel

Describe the effects the following would have on the way you PAGE gel would run: a) Increasing the percent of acrylamide b) Increasing the pH of the Tris-glycine buffer to 9.5 c) Decreasing the voltage at which the gel was run d) Increasing the voltage at which the gel was run by a factor of 3 e) Doubling the sample load vo

Tripalmitoylglycerol Oxidation

Contrary to the legend camels do not store water in their humps, which actually consist of a large fat deposit. How can these fat deposits serve as a source of water? Calculate the amount of water (in liters) that can be produced by the camel from 1 kg (0.45 lb) of fat. Assume for simplicity that the fat consists entirely

Hydrolyzed gelatin use in diet

A weight-reducing diet heavily promoted in the past required the daily intake of "liquid protein" (soup of hydrolyzed gelatin), water and an assortment of vitamins. All other food and drink were to be avoided. People on this diet typically lost 10-14 lb in the first week. (a) Opponents argued that the weight loss was al

Fatty acid biosynthesis

Using your knowledge of fatty acid biosynthesis, provide an explanation for the following experimental observations: (a) The addition of uniformly labeled [14C] acetyl-CoA to a soluble liver fraction yields palmitate uniformly labeled with 14C. (b) However, the addition of a trace of uniformly labeled [14C]acetyl-CoA in th

Oxaloacetate and oxygene consumption

Addition of small amounts of oxaloacetate or malate to suspensions of minced pigeon-breast muscle stimulated the oxygen consumption of the preparation. Surprisingly, when the amount of oxygen consumed was measured, it was about 7 times more than the amount necessary to oxidize the added oxaloacetate or malate completely to car

Cellular Respiration

Cellular respiration is a process that occurs in many organisms. The rate of cellular respiration can be measured using several different methods. a) design a specific experiment to measure the rate of cellular respiration in an organism of your choice b) construct a graph to report your results and graph the results th

ATP Synthesis

How does the mitochondrion couple the fall of the electrons in the electron transport chain to ATP synthesis?

Absorption Spectra for Fluorescent Proteins

What is the difference between an absorption spectrum, excitation spectrum, and emissions spectrum? I deduce the identity of two fluorescent protein (label FP3 and FP6) based on absorption spectrum. The results of the absorption spectra were plotted in two ways: Y-axis as true absorbance or Y-axis as normalized absorbance

Controlled Experiment Design

Describe a well-controlled experiment to determine if the rise in internal free calcium observed in the cytoplasm of unfertilized sea urchin eggs in the presence of A23187 is due to in flux of calcium from seawater. Include experimental treatments, controls, and briefly describe experimental methods. Note: As mentioned in th


1. A "constitutive" process is one that is always present or active, whereas an "inducible" process is one that requires some stimulus or event to trigger its activity. In your journal, name and briefly explain two constitutive parts or processes that protect vertebrates from elements of their external environment. 2. Injec

D-mannose isomerase

Is D-mannose or D-lyxose a better substrate for D-mannose isomerase and why? Would a L form also be an substrate?


Are yeasts better anaerobic or aerobic? Why?

Breakdown of glycogen

What is the difference between glycogen breakdown in liver and in muscle? - Release vs. consumption

What is the energy cost of this kind of covalent regulation?

The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins is a vital means of regulation. Protein kinases attach phosphoryl groups, whereas phosphatases remove the phosphoryl group from the target protein. What is the energy cost of this kind of covalent regulation?

Bradford Assay Errors

What are the possible errors when the Bradford assay is used for the protein determination?


What are peroxidase? - Include a brief description of the general type of reaction they catalyze. - Describe a metabolic pathway from any organism (bacterium, plant, animal) that peroxidase is involved. - Include the name of the specific peroxidase, the components of the reaction catalyzed by the peroxidase and the name

Universal priming sequences and sequencing cloned cDNA

A 2500 base-pair long cDNA of unknown sequence was cloned into the MCS of a plasmid vector that has universal priming sequences adjacent to and on both sides of the MCS. On one side this is called the "forward universal priming sequence" and on the other it is called the "reverse universal priming sequence." Sanger sequencing

What function does the fluoresence have in pseudomonal fluorescent bacteria?

These bacteria don't present much colour when viewed through the microscope, but the name must carry some indication of colour. Has the colour a specific function? What is the process by which the bacteria turn meat "off"? The proces by which the bacteria affect milk is outlined in text books, but the "meat" process seems to b

Using the data given in table below plot a Lineweaver-Burk plot

A) Using the data given in table below plot a Lineweaver-Burk plot b) Determine the Km and Vmax for the three sets of data c) Which inhibitor would the most effective at high substrate concentrations? d) Explain you choice Table 1 : Kinetics data for an enzyme catalysed reaction with and without the presence of

Maximum Growth Rate

Calculate the maximum growth rate (umax) and the specific growth rate (u) at t=10h dX/dt = unetX, when u is constant lnX-lnX0 = ut Attached is a word doc with the data

Glycolysis Pathway questions

1) Glycerol can enter the glycolysis pathway by being converted to what? 2) How many molecules of ATP are used up in the glycolysis pathway? 3) How many pyruvate molecules are obtained from one molecule of glucose in the glycolysis pathway? 4) How many molecules of ATP are produced in the glycolysis pathway? 5) H

Saturation of Lipids - Bromine

If you add 1 drop of 5% bromine solution in hexane to 1mL each of 5% solution of lard, olive oil, and corn oil dissolved in hexane, what happens to the bromine that causes each mixture to turn colorless? If you continue adding drops of bromine to each, eventually the lipids change color. For our experiment it took 14 for lard