Explore BrainMass

Molecular Biology

Molecular biology looks at biological systems in cell-scale structures and interactions. It mainly focuses on DNA-related activities such as replication, transcription and translation of proteins, as well the sequences of DNA, RNA and proteins. Molecular biology uses various techniques, an example is are Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and Bioinformatices analyze and interpret acquired datasets. 

Biological techniques quantitatively determine specific sequences and structures that compose proteins and genes, as well as their associated function. Examples of techniques are: Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR), gel electrophoresis and blotting. Polymerase Chain Reactions allows the amplification of a single sequence of DNA, to produce millions of copies – this technique has widespread applications for genetic analysis in forensic investigations. Gel electrophoresis is when DNA, RNA and proteins are separated by using a charged field in a gel medium. The movement of proteins suspended in the gel depends on the size of the protein and their mass number, eventually the proteins will be spread out in the gel forming bands. In blotting, DNA sequences are examined for repeating sequences, RNA presence, specific proteins and protein modification.

Bioinformatics uses technology to collect and analyze the data received from biological techniques. With obtained data sets, underlying patterns can be interpreted to give a greater understanding of biological systems.


Categories within Molecular Biology


Postings: 9

Bioinformatics is the usage of technology to further understand biological structures by data collection, storing, processing, and analysing or mining of data.

Ames Test

- What is an Ames Test? - 3 discs were impregnated with either a control substance, chemical 1, or chemical 2 and placed on a lawn of his- Salmonella grown on medium that does not contain histidine supplement (think: would you expect this strain of Salmonella to grow on plates without histidine?). Attached are the results af

Basic cell molecular biology

1. Because G binds to C more strongly than A binds to T, the melting temperature should increase with the fraction of G/C pairs along the backbone of a sequence. Using the website, a. Plot the melting temperature as a function of G/C content for a 60 base pair sequ

Molecular and Cell Biology: Eukaryotic Cells and Moving Proteins and Organelles

Question 1. a. How have Eukaryotic cells solved the problem of moving proteins and organelles from one part of the cell to another, faster than would occur by diffusion? And give a specific example to illustrate how a protein may be moved from part of the cell to another. b. Describe one mechanism that ensures that proteins a

Molecular and Cell Biology: Gan-of-Function Mutations

7. a) How are second messengers generated from phosphatidylinositol (Pl)? b) What are the main function(s) of the second messengers derived from Pl? 9. a) In the context of tumourigenesis, what is a gain-of-funtion mutation? b) List two effects that gain-of-function mutations may have on encoded protein. c) Br

Proteins, Enzymes, Synthesis and Division

Question 1: a) What role do microtubules play in intracellular transport? b) Describe the structure of microfilaments and microfilament networks and explain how they are assembled and disassembled within a cell. c) Outline two functions that microfilament networks play in cell motility. d) What function of intermediate fil

Molecular and Cell Biology

1. The three components of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton are microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. a) State the principle protein component of the microtubules, and briefly describe the structure of a microtubule. b) Describe how microfilaments polymerize from their monomer components. Include a desc

Molecular and Cell Biology Practice Questions

I am now in revision with 3 weeks before the exam for molecular and cell biology (together with another 3 subjects) I would like to get model answers of past exam questions for part A (short questions) of my exam. There are 12 questions in part A in each past exam paper. I have one of the past papers (part A) ready and attac

Mechanisms of Genetic Recombination in Nature

1. Transformation, conjugation, and transduction were discovered in the laboratory. How important are these mechanisms of genetic recombination in nature? 2. What is the process of DNA fingerprinting, and how is electrophoresis used in criminal forensics? 3. How can plasmids be used to manufacture proteins such as insulin for

Molecular Biology Questions

TRUE "or" FALSE Questions 1. mRNA degradation pathways in bacteria are the same as in eukaryotic cells. 2. Trans splicing relations involve small snoRNAs. 3. U1 U2 U4 U5 U6 snRNAs are all involved in transcript editing. 4. Virusoids and viroids form a hammerhead ribozyme structure that has self cleaving activity. 5. Pol

Sequence analysis of DNA

See attached. please show all work in detail -------------------------------------------------------- (a) Given two sequences x and y as shown below Determine the minimum number of edit operations (substitution, and indels) required to transform one into another ________________________________________________________

Molecular Biology of the Cell

1. Compare and contrast, in depth, the cellular processes of mitosis and meiosis. Include interphase in your explanation. Chromosomal movement and status must be included in your answer. You may include a diagram to explain your answer but you must discuss each portion of the diagram. 2. Explain the following signaling p

Molecular biology of the gene:

. Primary transcripts produced by RNA polymerases are generally faithful copies of the DNA template. However, most final/functional forms of these RNAs vary substantially from the primary transcript. Give as many examples as possible of different types of RNA processing. Give an example of an RNA class which is not routinely

Biology Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following is an accurate statement concerning the differences between DNA and RNA? a. RNA is usually double-stranded, but DNA is usually single-stranded. b. RNA has the sugar deoxyribose, but DNA has the sugar ribose. c. RNA contains three different nucleotides, but DNA contains four differ

Influence of our Biology

What are two ways in which our "biology" may influence the types of experiences we have? Provide examples of these two ways.


Regarding exercise 12(see attachment).........These are the measurements from electrophoresis well 1=37mm,36,29,25,22,18 and well 2-5 all have measurements of 45mm can you do this equation for me as stated on page 105-106 dealing with the regression line equation. Why are different temperatures needed for the 3 steps in the po

DNA strand is decoded.

Working in a research lab, a colleague has identified an mRNA strand that can be translated into a particular protein. Your job is to decode the DNA that would be transcribed to form the mRNA strand in question. Given the mRNA strand below, label the sense and anti-sense strands of the DNA you decode. EXPLAIN the observations an

Westen Blot Technique

You are provided with a sample of blood from a patient who is suspected of having Lymes disease (Borrelia). If you also have access to Borrelia cell surface proteins and goat anti-human IgG conjugated horse radish peroxidase state how you would determine if the individual had been exposed to this disease.

Analyzing Mutant Strains

Please see the attached file for full problem description. 1. Researchers have identified an E.coli strain having constitutive expression of camp. What would be the effect on lac operon expression in the following media? What if this mutant also contained an O^- mutation? a. Glucose b. Lactose c. Glucose + Lactose 2. A mutant

Molecular Biology Homework Help and Solution

Please see the attached file for full problem description. --- 1. Heparin is a polyanion that inhibits RNA transcription in vitro by binding directly to bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP). If heparin interferes with the ability of the polymerase to bind DNA in a non-specific fashion, what subunit of RNAP is the heparin binding