Molecular biology looks at biological systems in cell-scale structures and interactions. It mainly focuses on DNA-related activities such as replication, transcription and translation of proteins, as well the sequences of DNA, RNA and proteins. Molecular biology uses various techniques, an example is are Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), and Bioinformatices analyze and interpret acquired datasets.
Biological techniques quantitatively determine specific sequences and structures that compose proteins and genes, as well as their associated function. Examples of techniques are: Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR), gel electrophoresis and blotting. Polymerase Chain Reactions allows the amplification of a single sequence of DNA, to produce millions of copies – this technique has widespread applications for genetic analysis in forensic investigations. Gel electrophoresis is when DNA, RNA and proteins are separated by using a charged field in a gel medium. The movement of proteins suspended in the gel depends on the size of the protein and their mass number, eventually the proteins will be spread out in the gel forming bands. In blotting, DNA sequences are examined for repeating sequences, RNA presence, specific proteins and protein modification.
Bioinformatics uses technology to collect and analyze the data received from biological techniques. With obtained data sets, underlying patterns can be interpreted to give a greater understanding of biological systems.