a) What role do microtubules play in intracellular transport?
b) Describe the structure of microfilaments and microfilament networks and explain how they are assembled and disassembled within a cell.
c) Outline two functions that microfilament networks play in cell motility.
d) What function of intermediate filaments have in eukaryotic cells?
a) What two key factors determine the specificity of Watson-Crick base pairing in B-DNA? For each of these factors, explain why this is the case.
b) What activity of E.coli DNA polymerase 1 is responsible for ensuring correct Watso-Crick pairing during DNAS synthesis?
c) Outline briefly how this activity (given in your answer to part (b)) is achieved by this enzyme.
a) What is a mitotic spindle?
b) Which to classes of motor proteins interact with spindle microtubules during mitosis?
c) What role do these motor proteins play in the process of mitosis?
d) A drug that prevents the assembly of microtubules is applied to a culture of dividing cells for four hours. How will the culture treated with the drug differ from an untreated culture of the same cells, in terms of the numbers of cells in different stages of the cell cycle? In your answer, you should explain how the difference in appearance arises.
a) Describe the cellular location and function of the following membrane-bound vesicles: (i) synaptic vesicle, (ii) phagosome.
b) Describe the roles of two of the following proteins associated with the formation of transport vesicles: Epsin, Dynamin, GGA-proteins, GTP-binding adapter proteins.
c) Give one example of a transport vesicle that moves between the ER and the Golgi apparatus, indicating its coat protein and its direction of movement.
See the attached file.
a. The role of Microtubules in intracellular support is: To help define the cell structure and movement. They transport organelles, such as vesicles or mitochondria. In non-dividing cells, microtubule networks radiate out from the centrosome to provide the basic organization of the cytoplasm, including the positioning of organelles.
b. Describe the structure of microfilaments and microfilament networks and explain how they are assembled and disassembled within a cell: Microfilaments are formed from pools of actin monomers, which associate non-covalently and can grow or shrink or remain stable. The microfilament network is formed from polymerized or fibrous actin (F-actin) extends throughout the cytoplasm, but its organization, the length of the filaments and their degree of branching depend very much on the type of cell, its shape, and how it is interacting with the extracellular matrix.
Microtubules (tubulin) or bundles of microfilaments (actin) cause movement, in some instances, by disassembly or assembly of subunits. Possible examples are the pulling of a chromosome toward a pole in mitosis (anaphase) or the deformation of a cell membrane to change the shape of a cell. Reorganization of the microfilament network can take place both locally (affecting only part of the cell) and globally (across the whole cell). In particular, cells that are moving rearrange their entire cytoskeleton as the cell becomes polarized, with engagement of microfilaments required for movement of the cell, and microtubules involved in moving the organelles.
c. Two of the functions that microfilaments networks play in cell motility are:
They help to generate the forces used in cellular contraction and basic cell movements. The filaments also enable a dividing cell to pinch off into two cells and are involved in amoeboid movements of certain types of cells. In association with myosin, microfilaments help to generate the forces used in cellular contraction and ...
The solution discusses molecular and cell biology including proteins, enzymes, synthesis and division.
Molecular and Cell Biology: Eukaryotic Cells and Moving Proteins and Organelles
a. How have Eukaryotic cells solved the problem of moving proteins and organelles from one part of the cell to another, faster than would occur by diffusion? And give a specific example to illustrate how a protein may be moved from part of the cell to another.
b. Describe one mechanism that ensures that proteins are moved to the appropriate place within a cell.
a. Using examples to illustrate your answer name and briefly describe four different types of non-covalent interactions that can occur between and within molecules.
b. How is a Scathard plot generated, and what measure of the inter-molecular interaction is used to determine this?
a. What are three features of a protein domain?
b. Briefly outline there attributes conferred on a protein by having multi-domain architecture. Illustrate your answer using at least two examples of multi-domain proteins.
a. Briefly describe how packaging of DNA into chromatin contributes to DNA protection, compaction and metabolism.
b. Briefly describe one factor of cellular component that contributes to the packaging of the eubacterial chromosome.
c. How is the type of DNA packaging found in Archae similar to that observed in Eukaryotes?
a. In terms of replication origins, how do the chromosomes of E. coli and S. Cerevisiae differ?
b. What is the main advantage to a cell of having a defined starting point for DNA synthesis?
a. Two post-translational modification of proteins and indicate where the modification takes place within the cell and what effect it has on the protein.
b. What is a proteasome, and what function does it have and where is it located within the cell?
c. How are proteins targeted to proteasomes?
d. How do functions of proteasomes and MHC molecules combine to contribute to immune defense?