Give a short (2 page) discussion on the beneficial role of trace elements in living systems.
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Role of Trace Elements
Element having average concentration of less than 100 ppm is referred to as trace elements. For living system, trace element is needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development and physiology of organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as micronutrients. A large number of elements are required in trace amount. Generally they play a role in catalyzing the enzyme. Some of the major trace elements needed by animals are as follows :-
a. Cobalt is required for biosynthesis of vitamin B12 family of coenzymes
b. Copper is required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase of electron transport system in mitochondria
c. Fluorine for tooth enamel which contains fluoroapatite (see Water fluoridation controversy)
d. Iodine is required for the biosynthesis of thyroxin, is required in larger quantities than the other trace minerals in this list and is sometimes classified with the bulk minerals
e. Iron is required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin
f. Manganese (processing of oxygen)
g. Molybdenum is required for xanthine oxidase related oxidases
h. Nickel present in urease
i. Selenium is required for peroxidases which act as antioxidant proteins
j. Zinc is pervasive and required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidases, carbonic anhydrase
Important Trace elements required in Plants are as follows :
Functions: Iron plays an important role in electron transport systems in ...
Element having average concentration of less than 100 ppm is referred to as trace elements. Trace element is needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development and physiology of organism. Generally they play a role in catalyzing the enzyme. Some of the major trace elements needed by living beings are Cc, Zn, B, Cl, Fe etc.