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Biological Chemistry

Biological Chemistry is the examination of the chemical processes within biological systems. It focuses on evaluating the biological signaling and flow of chemical energy through the process of metabolism within living organisms. Although, Biological Chemistry has typically been focused at explaining the living process, it today focuses mostly on understanding how individual biological molecules, along with their interactions contribute to the complexity of a whole organism. Although, Biological Chemistry is a discipline of Chemistry, it also draws on concepts from General and Molecular Biology.

Biological Chemistry largely focuses on the study of the properties and interactions of biological macromolecules which include, but are not limited to proteins, DNA, lipids and carbohydrates. The main focus is on these macromolecules because they intrinsically give or react to give the functions associated with life. Although the focus is on these macromolecules, an examination of their constituents, such as their amino acids, nucleotides, triglycerides and saccharides respectively, is also necessary.  Thus, understanding processes which synthesize these larger macromolecules are extremely crucial – processes which include the citric acid cycle, beta-oxidation and DNA replication.

Since, these macromolecules form the basis of life, the applicability of Biological Chemistry extends mainly into the fields of medicine and pharmacology. Thus, studying biological chemistry is a crucial component of understanding and predicting the different chemical processes within biological systems.

Categories within Biological Chemistry

Amino Acids and Protein Structures

The amino acid sequence shown below represents a portion of a peptide obtained from a large protein. Leu(1) His(2) Ile(3) Thr(4) Arg(5) Phe(6) Phe(7) Pro(8) Cys(9) Met(10) Gly(11) Glu(12) Ala(13) Ile(14) Pro(15) His(16) Thr(17) Glu(18) Asp(19) Cys(20) Gln(21) Met(22) Ile(23) His(2

Reconstitution, Volume of Water, and Ovalbumin

For your upcoming biochemistry experiment, a protocol indicates that you will need a 6.1 mM solution of the protein 'ovalbumin'. Looking around the laboratory, you find one vial of ovalbumin. The label and Certificate of Analysis that shipped with the ovalbumin provide the following information. - Sigma catalog number A5503

Chemical Changes in Common Processes

Need help answering the following questions: 1. When a copper tree is placed in a liquid, what other evidence of chemical changes (besides forming solid crystals) in the liquid occurs? 2. Does a chemical change occur when you cook an egg? Why or why not? When you fry an egg, it becomes a solid, the heat makes it smok

Common Biochemistry Terms

Briefly define the following terms: 1. stereospecific 2. denaturation 3. glycoprotein 4. assay 5. endergonic 6. active site 7. cytochrome 8. phosphofructokinase 9. specific activity 10. quaternary structure

Determining Kinetic Energy of Electrons

To resolve an object in an electron microscope, the wavelength of the electrons must be close to the diameter of the object. What kinetic energy must the electrons have in order to resolve a protein molecule that is 4.60 nm in diameter? Take the mass of an electron to be 9.11 x 11-31 kg.

Endorphins: What Are They and How Do They Work?

Describe in brief the chemistry and biology of the feel-good chemical, endorphins. Also explain why the name "feel good" is given chemicals as such. What is the chemical structure and formula of these chemicals?

Enzymes and their effects on muscle contraction

What exactly are myosin, actin, troponin and tropomyosin chemically? What molecule releases energy when its bonds are broken. Which bonds are broken to release that energy? Where does ATP come from? What happens when one has a calcium deficiency?

Isozymes Examination

Where does an isozyme come from? Why does an elevated level of one isozyme mean in a certain thing? Reference please!!!!!!!!!

Nucleic acids, DNA, RNA

A girl is celebrating her seventh birthday. Each guest is served one large slice of chocolate cake, a hamburger, French fries, and some oranges. Identify the food groups mentioned above. If one slice of chocolate cake contains 35g of carbohydrate, 15g of fat and 5g of protein, calculate the kilocalories that each slice of

freezing point of biological fluids with glycerol

What is the degree to which the freezing point of blood and other biological fluids is lowered with the help of glycerol. What is the ideal concentration range of glycerol required to achieve this?

Fats and Biological Chemistry

A fully animated PowerPoint presentation explaining the molecular structure of fats, the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats and why bromine can be used to test for fats and how saturated they are. You will see how fats are made by reacting fatty acids with gycerol and the reaction that occurs on the molecular l

Identifying Food Groups and Calculating Calories

Question: If one slice of chocolate cake contains 35g of carbohydrate, 15g of fat and 5g of protein, calculate the kilocalories that each slice of cake contains. Also, identify all the food groups that form a part of a balanced diet along with their sources.

The Managing Director of a well-known company on Wall Street thrives on a diet of fruit jam, bread, pasta, and coffee. She exercises intermittently. One day she decides to go to her primary healthcare provider for a routine checkup. The healthcare provider recommends that she take the Benedict's test. Assume that the glucose levels of the patient are high.

The Managing Director of a well-known company on Wall Street thrives on a diet of fruit jam, bread, pasta, and coffee. She exercises intermittently. One day she decides to go to her primary healthcare provider for a routine checkup. The healthcare provider recommends that she take the Benedict's test. Assume that the glucose lev

Ozone

Why is ozone considered desirable in the stratosphere, but not desirable near earth?

Physical and chemical changes

Which of the following show chemical or physical change? a) Boiling canned soup b) Toasting a slice of bread c) Chopping a log d) Burning a log e) Dew condensing on a leaf f) An egg turned hard when boiled g) Ice cream melting h) A spoonful of batter cooking on a hot griddle

Drawing of Protein Molecule: Example Problem

I need to draw the following molecule (using the lewis condensed line structure). It consists of two strands aligned one on tope of the other w/7 amino acids on each strand. The side chains of the aminso acids are all pointing into the space between the two strands. (strand #1 consists of the followinf (from left to right) Ly

Decomposition of Urea

Urea is the end product in protein metabolism in animals. The decomposition of urea in 0.1 M of HCl occurs according to the reaction NH2CONH2 + H + 2H2O ---> 2NH4 The reaction is first order in urea and first order overall. When NH2COHN2 is 0.200 M, the rate at 61.05 is 8.56 x 10^-5 M/s. What is the value for the rat

Hemoglobin as a Complexing Agent

Can we say that hemoglobin is a complexing agent? Discuss this issue, giving at least three reasons to substantiate your point of view.

Nomenclature and Biomolecules

Part A Complete the following nomenclature exercise. Provide the names of compounds from formulas or provide the formula from the name. In addition, list whether the compound is covalent or ionic. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the following compounds. 1. Potassium bromide

Role of trace elements

Give a short (2 page) discussion on the beneficial role of trace elements in living systems.

Total Calories in a Slice of Bread

Estimate the total calories in a slice of bread that has 9.0 g of carbohydrates, 2.0 g of protein, and 1.0 g of fat. What percentage of total calories is from fat? If 4.0kcal/g for proteins and carbohydrates If 9.0kcal/g for fats 1 kcal = 1 Cal = 1000 cal = 4.18 J

Biological chemistry problems

1. Ethylene glycol is used as automobile antifreeze. 6.38 g of this compound contains 2.47 g of carbon and 0.620 g of hydrogen. The rest is oxygen. The molar mass is 62.0 g/mole. What are the empirical and molecular formulas of ethylene glycol? 2. Aspirin is produced in a student lab. One mole of salicylic acid (MM 138 g/mo

Short essays in biochemistry

Short essays: A. Discuss the various components of protein structure (ie, the final three-dimensional shape is the final result of these components of structure). What is denaturation of a protein? B. Discuss how a soap works to cut grease. Diagram a glob of grease which has been emulsified by micelle formation. C. C

DNA

What tripeptide would be synthesized from the informational strand of DNA with the sequence 5' GTATCCAGT? The beta-chain of hemoglobin is a protein that contains 146 amino acid residues. What minimunm number of nucleotides must be present in a strand of mRNA that is coded for this protein?