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Biological Chemistry

Biological Chemistry is the examination of the chemical processes within biological systems. It focuses on evaluating the biological signaling and flow of chemical energy through the process of metabolism within living organisms. Although, Biological Chemistry has typically been focused at explaining the living process, it today focuses mostly on understanding how individual biological molecules, along with their interactions contribute to the complexity of a whole organism. Although, Biological Chemistry is a discipline of Chemistry, it also draws on concepts from General and Molecular Biology.

Biological Chemistry largely focuses on the study of the properties and interactions of biological macromolecules which include, but are not limited to proteins, DNA, lipids and carbohydrates. The main focus is on these macromolecules because they intrinsically give or react to give the functions associated with life. Although the focus is on these macromolecules, an examination of their constituents, such as their amino acids, nucleotides, triglycerides and saccharides respectively, is also necessary.  Thus, understanding processes which synthesize these larger macromolecules are extremely crucial – processes which include the citric acid cycle, beta-oxidation and DNA replication.

Since, these macromolecules form the basis of life, the applicability of Biological Chemistry extends mainly into the fields of medicine and pharmacology. Thus, studying biological chemistry is a crucial component of understanding and predicting the different chemical processes within biological systems.

Categories within Biological Chemistry

Branched chain alpha keto-acid dehydrogenase complex

Maple syrup disease is caused by the accumulation of the alpha-keto acids from branch chain amino acids. Which enzyme is defective? Describe how this enzyme normally function and make sure to include a description on the role of the cofactors involved.

Breakdown of tryptophan

Proteins absorb light at 280nm, this is due primarily to one amino acid. Describe the breakdown of this amino acid by using a flow diagram, show key intermediates and cofactors (10).

Amino Acids and Protein Structures

The amino acid sequence shown below represents a portion of a peptide obtained from a large protein. Leu(1) His(2) Ile(3) Thr(4) Arg(5) Phe(6) Phe(7) Pro(8) Cys(9) Met(10) Gly(11) Glu(12) Ala(13) Ile(14) Pro(15) His(16) Thr(17) Glu(18) Asp(19) Cys(20) Gln(21) Met(22) Ile(23) His(2

Chemical Change

Need help answering the following questions: 1. When a copper tree is placed in a liquid, what other evidence of chemical changes (besides forming solid crystals) in the liquid occurs? 2. Does a chemical change occur when you cook an egg? Why or why not? When you fry an egg, it becomes a solid, the heat makes it smok

Common Biochemistry Terms

Briefly define the following terms: 1. stereospecific 2. denaturation 3. glycoprotein 4. assay 5. endergonic 6. active site 7. cytochrome 8. phosphofructokinase 9. specific activity 10. quaternary structure

(HWU4-14) Electrons

To resolve an object in an electron microscope, the wavelength of the electrons must be close to the diameter of the object. What kinetic energy must the electrons have in order to resolve a protein molecule that is 4.60 nm in diameter? Take the mass of an electron to be 9.11 x 11-31 kg.

Endorphins: What Are They and How Do They Work?

Describe in brief the chemistry and biology of the feel-good chemical, endorphins. Also explain why the name "feel good" is given chemicals as such. What is the chemical structure and formula of these chemicals?

Enzymes and their effects on muscle contraction.

What exactly are myosin, actin, troponin and tropomyosin chemically? What molecule releases energy when its bonds are broken. Which bonds are broken to release that energy? Where does ATP come from? What happens when one has a calcium deficiency?


Where does an isozyme come from? Why does an elevated level of one isozyme mean in a certain thing? Reference please!!!!!!!!!

Identifying Food Groups and Calculating Calories

Question: If one slice of chocolate cake contains 35g of carbohydrate, 15g of fat and 5g of protein, calculate the kilocalories that each slice of cake contains. Also, identify all the food groups that form a part of a balanced diet along with their sources.


Why is ozone considered desirable in the stratosphere, but not desirable near earth?


Describe the role of mRNA in Protein Synthesis


Name two biologically important nucleotides and describe their biological functions.

Draw the following protein molecule

I need to draw the following molecule (using the lewis condensed line structure). It consists of two strands aligned one on tope of the other w/7 amino acids on each strand. The side chains of the aminso acids are all pointing into the space between the two strands. (strand #1 consists of the followinf (from left to right) Ly

Review Questions Ch 28,29,30 PrtII

Please see the attachment for the second set of questions. They are confusing to me, and I want to double check my answers because I feel similar questions will be asked for my exam. Thanks! Thanks!

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Urea is the end product in protein metabolism in animals. The decomposition of urea in 0.1 M of HCl occurs according to the reaction NH2CONH2 + H + 2H2O ---> 2NH4 The reaction is first order in urea and first order overall. When NH2COHN2 is 0.200 M, the rate at 61.05 is 8.56 x 10^-5 M/s. What is the value for the rat

Hemoglobin as a Complexing Agent

Can we say that hemoglobin is a complexing agent? Discuss this issue, giving at least three reasons to substantiate your point of view.

Nomenclature and Biomolecules

Part A Complete the following nomenclature exercise. Provide the names of compounds from formulas or provide the formula from the name. In addition, list whether the compound is covalent or ionic. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the following compounds. 1. Potassium bromide

Percentage of total calories from fat

Estimate the total calories in a slice of bread that has 9.0 g of carbohydrates, 2.0 g of protein, and 1.0 g of fat. What percentage of total calories is from fat? If 4.0kcal/g for proteins and carbohydrates If 9.0kcal/g for fats 1 kcal = 1 Cal = 1000 cal = 4.18 J


There is 100 mg of protein dissolved in 100 mL water. Then 10 microliters of that solution is dissolved in 990 microliters of water for total volume of 1.0 mL. To calculate the concentration of protein is it 10/990 or 10/1000? And does the original concentration of solution even matter when calculating the solution concentration