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    Biological and Bioactive Organic Compounds

    Biological Organic Compounds are carbon-base compounds that are found in, and produced by living organisms. The four main bio-organic compounds are proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates. a) A protein is formed by the bonding of many amino acids, which are small inorganic compounds which contain the following groups: amine (-NH_2), carboxylic acid (-COOH), and an ‘R Group’ specific for the amino acid. These are important in Organic Chemistry as they have a chiral carbon (as all four substituent groups are different), which lends them very unique properties. b) Nucleic acids are formed by the bonding of different nucleotides through the phosphate of one to the sugar of the next nucleotide. Nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA are essential for storing and conveying the genetic information of an organism. c) Lipids are carbon-based molecules produced by the body which are general hydrophobic. Due to their non-polar covalent bonds, they are not attracted to any dipoles, and thus are not attracted to water. Lipids can be categorized into four groups: fats, phospholipids, steroids and waxes. d) Carbohydrates are organic compounds that consist of only hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. Carbohydrates, like lipids, can also be categorized into four groups: monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide and polysaccharide. A monosaccharide is the most basic unit, consisting of just one molecule of a sugar. A disaccharide forms when two monosaccharides undergo a condensation reaction. An oligosaccharide contains a small number of simple sugars, while polysaccharides are considered to be much longer than oligosaccharides, they can range from hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides bonded together by glycosidic bonds. © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com April 19, 2024, 2:21 pm ad1c9bdddf

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    Summary of a Scientific News Report

    A study of gay men in the US has found fresh evidence that male sexual orientation is influenced by genes. Scientists tested the DNA of 400 gay men and found that genes on at least two chromosomes affected whether a man was gay or straight. A region of the X chromosome called Xq28 had some impact on men's sexual behavior - th

    Preparing solutions for biochemical experiments

    In preparation for a protein purification experiment, you have been asked to prepare 100 mL of an aqueous solution of Tween20. The solution should have a final concentration of 4.25% (v/v) Tween 20. There is a bottle of Tween 20 (100% v/v) on the lab shelf. Describe the method that you will use to prepare the solution.

    Amines, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

    1. Write a structural formula for each of the following compounds: a. N,N-diethylaminocyclopentane b. ethylpropylamine c. tetramethylammonium hydroxide d. 1,3-diaminobutane 2. Write a correct name for each of the following compounds: 3. Draw the structures for and name and classify as primary, secondary, or tertiary all

    Good vs. Bad Sterols - Discussion Question

    I have done some research on this question, but just need some help please. I just copied and pasted some of my research but you can use some of it or delete all of it. I will do a lot of research and write something up, but I just want to know if I am on the right path, especially for the question regarding the chemical formula

    Coronary Artery Disease & Nutrition Questions

    1. A girl is celebrating her seventh birthday. Each guest is served one large slice of chocolate cake, a hamburger, French fries, and some oranges. Identify the food groups mentioned above. If one slice of chocolate cake contains 35g of carbohydrate, 15g of fat and 5g of protein, calculate the kilocalories that each slice o

    Various Biological and Organic Chemistry Questions

    1. Serine exists in its zwitterion form at a pH of 5.7. Draw the structural formula for the same. Explain the manner in which the structural formula of polar and non-polar amino acids would vary. 2. Discuss, in detail, the role played by DNA and RNA in genetic diseases. What are the breakthroughs, if any, in the treatment/ma

    Hydrocarbons and chemistry of functional groups

    Can you please help with the following review 1. Which of the following amino acids are chiral? a) CH3CH(NH2)COOH b) CH2(NH2)COOH c) CH2(OH)CN(NH2)COOH 2.Identify the functional groups in each of the following molecules: a) CH3CH2COCH2CH2CH3 b) CH3COOC2H5 c) CH3CH2OCH2CH2CH2CH3 3. How many liters of ai

    The Functions of Amino Acids in the Human Body

    1. Classify six kinds of amino acids according to the functions that they serve in the human body, stating an example for each class. 2. A middle-aged man has been diagnosed as being at high-risk of developing Coronary Artery Disease. - State the chemical composition of the sterol that is present in high levels in most peo

    Amino Acids and Polarity

    Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problems. 1) Which of these amino acids have polar side chains? 2) Which of these amino acids have side chains that cannot form hydrogen bonds (i.e.,do not have H-bond donors or acceptors)? 3)Which of the amino acids shown have a side chain that can form a salt

    Solutions : pH and Concentration (10 Questions)

    1.Calculate log(42). Express your answer numerically. 2. if log(x) = -0.123, what does x equal? Using Dissociation Constants Proteins are complex biological molecules made of smaller molecules called amino acids. Five common amino acids and their Ka values are listed below. Rank them from strongest to weakest acid. Ac

    Chemistry: Percent Concentration Problems

    Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem(s). 1. Percent Concentration as a Conversion Factor How many grams (m) of glucose are in 265 mL of a 5.50% (m/v) glucose solution? Express your answer numerically in grams. Part C You have a solution that is 18.5% (v/v) methyl alcohol. If the bottle contain

    Leucine: Condensed Structure, Fischer Projection, Form

    Leucine is an essential amino acid with the systematic name 2-amino-3-methylpentanoic acid. It has pKa1=2.36 and pKa2=9.60 1. Draw the condensed structure for leucine, and label all chirality centers with an asterisk. 2. Draw a Fischer projection of L-leucine and label the chirality center(s) as R or S. 3. What is the

    The Chemistry of Food Composition

    Find the nutritional values/info in food from USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory? Select a food. Use the USDA website to analyze the nutritional components and composition in terms of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins (including molecular structure). Assess calories, vitamins and minerals. Is this food recommended?

    Products with Organic Molecules

    This exercise will allow you to see the relevance of organic chemistry in the world around you. You will identify organic compounds in household items and drugs. Locate two or more products in your home that contain organic molecules. From these products, make a list of 10 organic compounds present in the products. In

    Amino Acids and Proteins

    1. What is the difference between an amino acid and a protein? How does this difference in structure affect biological function? 2. Give an example of a hydrophobic group and a hydrophilic group.

    Determine the empirical formula of the amino acid.

    I am given an amino acid which consists of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. When a 426 mg sample of the amino acid is burned, 631 mg of carbon dioxide and 301 mg of water are formed. In a separate observation, the same amount of sample of amino acid is boiled in excess sulfuric acid, then neutralized

    Soap of triglyceride of palmitic, myristic & oleic acid

    1. Assume that the triglyceride you are starting with is composed of the following three fatty acids: myristic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid. Draw the structure of the starting triglyceride. 2. Using the triglyceride drawn in #3, show the products that result following saponification using NaOH. 3. Describe how soap

    Synthesis of a Liquid Crystal

    Hello, I did an experiment in which I added 500 mg of cholesterol to 1.5 mL of dry pyridine. Then I added 1.7 mmol of benzoyl chloride and heated the mixture. Questions: 1. Explain two reasons why pyridine was used in this experiment. 2. Do spherical molecules exhibit liquid crystalline behavior? 3. Could either a primar

    Description of Compounds, Saponification, and Fatty Acids

    Which of the following describes the compound below? CH3(CH)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH a. triglyceride b. micelle c. unsaturated fatty acid d. saturated fatty acid Question 2 Saponification will result in what products? a. 3 fatty acids + glycerol b. sodium salts of 3 fatty acids + glycerol c. chole

    Identifying Dipolar Ions

    There is a question in my textbook that reads P-amino acid is not a dipolar ion, whereas glycine (aminoacetic acid) is not a dipolar ion- how do you account for this? I understand that there may be some ring stability involved with the amino bezoic acid but I know that if aqueous acid is added than they will both be converted to

    Organic Chemistry Problems: amino acids, fill in the blanks, fatty acids

    See attachments for full descriptions of the problems 37. The most basic amino acid is ________ 38. The most acidic amino acid is ________ 39. The reaction below (see attached) is an example of: a. nucleophilic addition b. electrophilic addition c. nucleophilic acyl substitution d. electrophilic substitution Us

    Verley-Doebner modification of Knoevenagel

    In this modification of Knoevenagel condensation, malonic acid (not the ester) is reacted with an aldehyde to yield an alpha beta conjugated carboxylic acid. Pyridine is used as a solvent and catalyst, while beta-alanine (or some other amino acid) is used as a co-catalyst. 1. Can you please explain the use of beta-alanine? I

    Structural formula

    Structural formula of a protein that contains 4 building block units, showing where the peptide bonds are in the structure.

    Egg Whites as an Emergency Antidote

    A globular protein in aqueous surroundings contains the following amino acid residues; phenylamine, methionine, glutamate, lysine, and alanine. Which amono acid would have their side chains directed toward the inside of the proteins and which would have their side chaind directed toward the aqueous surroundings? I also need t

    Examining a Butter Label and Identifing Oils and Fat

    Examine the label submitted in the attached file . Identify the oil or fat and report the level of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fats that are listed on the label. Try to rank them from most saturated to most unsaturated. Check if the label mentions anything about trans fats.

    Fats and oils

    Margarine, which is made from corn oil contains a higher percentage of saturated and monounsaturated fats and oils than oil, but a lower percentage of polyunsaturated fats and oils. Explain why.

    Bond Multiple Choice Questions

    Indicate the number of possible stereoisomers for a linear aldopentose? a.4 b.8 c.12 d.16 What statement in incorrect about the following pairs of sugars? a. Galactose and mannose are diastereomers b. L-galactose and D-galactose are enantiomers c. Glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyactone are stereisomers d. Gulcose