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Biological and Bioactive Organic Compounds

Biological Organic Compounds are carbon-base compounds that are found in, and produced by living organisms. The four main bio-organic compounds are proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and carbohydrates. a) A protein is formed by the bonding of many amino acids, which are small inorganic compounds which contain the following groups: amine (-NH_2), carboxylic acid (-COOH), and an ‘R Group’ specific for the amino acid. These are important in Organic Chemistry as they have a chiral carbon (as all four substituent groups are different), which lends them very unique properties. b) Nucleic acids are formed by the bonding of different nucleotides through the phosphate of one to the sugar of the next nucleotide. Nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA are essential for storing and conveying the genetic information of an organism. c) Lipids are carbon-based molecules produced by the body which are general hydrophobic. Due to their non-polar covalent bonds, they are not attracted to any dipoles, and thus are not attracted to water. Lipids can be categorized into four groups: fats, phospholipids, steroids and waxes. d) Carbohydrates are organic compounds that consist of only hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. Carbohydrates, like lipids, can also be categorized into four groups: monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide and polysaccharide. A monosaccharide is the most basic unit, consisting of just one molecule of a sugar. A disaccharide forms when two monosaccharides undergo a condensation reaction. An oligosaccharide contains a small number of simple sugars, while polysaccharides are considered to be much longer than oligosaccharides, they can range from hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides bonded together by glycosidic bonds.

Summary of a Scientific News Report

A study of gay men in the US has found fresh evidence that male sexual orientation is influenced by genes. Scientists tested the DNA of 400 gay men and found that genes on at least two chromosomes affected whether a man was gay or straight. A region of the X chromosome called Xq28 had some impact on men's sexual behavior - th

This problem and solution help biology / chemistry / biochemistry students to understand and work with solutions when the concentration of a substance is expressed as a percentage. The solution includes the correct answer as well as tips for avoiding common mistakes.

In preparation for a protein purification experiment, you have been asked to prepare 100 mL of an aqueous solution of Tween20. The solution should have a final concentration of 4.25% (v/v) Tween 20. There is a bottle of Tween 20 (100% v/v) on the lab shelf. Describe the method that you will use to prepare the solution.

Amines, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

1. Write a structural formula for each of the following compounds: a. N,N-diethylaminocyclopentane b. ethylpropylamine c. tetramethylammonium hydroxide d. 1,3-diaminobutane 2. Write a correct name for each of the following compounds: 3. Draw the structures for and name and classify as primary, secondary, or tertiary all

Good vs. Bad Sterols - Discussion Question

I have done some research on this question, but just need some help please. I just copied and pasted some of my research but you can use some of it or delete all of it. I will do a lot of research and write something up, but I just want to know if I am on the right path, especially for the question regarding the chemical formula

Various Biological and Organic Chemistry Questions

1. Serine exists in its zwitterion form at a pH of 5.7. Draw the structural formula for the same. Explain the manner in which the structural formula of polar and non-polar amino acids would vary. 2. Discuss, in detail, the role played by DNA and RNA in genetic diseases. What are the breakthroughs, if any, in the treatment/ma

Hydrocarbons and chemistry of functional groups

Can you please help with the following review 1. Which of the following amino acids are chiral? a) CH3CH(NH2)COOH b) CH2(NH2)COOH c) CH2(OH)CN(NH2)COOH 2.Identify the functional groups in each of the following molecules: a) CH3CH2COCH2CH2CH3 b) CH3COOC2H5 c) CH3CH2OCH2CH2CH2CH3 3. How many liters of ai

The Functions of Amino Acids in the Human Body

1. Classify six kinds of amino acids according to the functions that they serve in the human body, stating an example for each class. 2. A middle-aged man has been diagnosed as being at high-risk of developing Coronary Artery Disease. - State the chemical composition of the sterol that is present in high levels in most peo

Solutions : pH and Concentration (10 Questions)

1.Calculate log(42). Express your answer numerically. 2. if log(x) = -0.123, what does x equal? Using Dissociation Constants Proteins are complex biological molecules made of smaller molecules called amino acids. Five common amino acids and their Ka values are listed below. Rank them from strongest to weakest acid. Ac

Chemistry: Percent Concentration Problems

Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem(s). 1. Percent Concentration as a Conversion Factor How many grams (m) of glucose are in 265 mL of a 5.50% (m/v) glucose solution? Express your answer numerically in grams. Part C You have a solution that is 18.5% (v/v) methyl alcohol. If the bottle contain

The Chemistry of Food Composition

Find the nutritional values/info in food from USDA Nutrient Data Laboratory? Select a food. Use the USDA website to analyze the nutritional components and composition in terms of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins (including molecular structure). Assess calories, vitamins and minerals. Is this food recommended?

Products with Organic Molecules

This exercise will allow you to see the relevance of organic chemistry in the world around you. You will identify organic compounds in household items and drugs. Locate two or more products in your home that contain organic molecules. From these products, make a list of 10 organic compounds present in the products. In

Finding the Empirical Formula of an Unknown Amino Acid

I am given an amino acid which consists of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. When a 426 mg sample of the amino acid is burned, 631 mg of carbon dioxide and 301 mg of water are formed. In a separate observation, the same amount of sample of amino acid is boiled in excess sulfuric acid, then neutralized

Soap

1. Assume that the triglyceride you are starting with is composed of the following three fatty acids: myristic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid. Draw the structure of the starting triglyceride. 2. Using the triglyceride drawn in #3, show the products that result following saponification using NaOH. 3. Describe how soap

Description of compounds, saponification, fatty acids

Which of the following describes the compound below? CH3(CH)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH a. triglyceride b. micelle c. unsaturated fatty acid d. saturated fatty acid Question 2 Saponification will result in what products? a. 3 fatty acids + glycerol b. sodium salts of 3 fatty acids + glycerol c.

Various Chemistry Questions

Which of the following best describes the side chain of valine? a. acidic b. basic c. non-polar d. polar Question 2 Which of the following amino acids has its isoelectric point at the lowest pH? a. aspartic acid b. glycine c. arginine d. methionine Question 3 When a dis

Identifying dipolar ions

There is a question in my textbook that reads P-amino acid is not a dipolar ion, whereas glycine (aminoacetic acid) is not a dipolar ion- how do you account for this? I understand that there may be some ring stability involved with the amino bezoic acid but I know that if aqueous acid is added than they will both be converted to

Organic Chemistry Problems: amino acids, fill in the blanks, fatty acids

See attachments for full descriptions of the problems 37. The most basic amino acid is ________ 38. The most acidic amino acid is ________ 39. The reaction below (see attached) is an example of: a. nucleophilic addition b. electrophilic addition c. nucleophilic acyl substitution d. electrophilic substitution Us

Structural formula

Structural formula of a protein that contains 4 building block units, showing where the peptide bonds are in the structure.

Proteins

A globular protein in aqueous surroundings contains the following amino acid residues; phenylamine, methionine, glutamate, lysine, and alanine. Which amono acid would have their side chains directed toward the inside of the proteins and which would have their side chaind directed toward the aqueous surroundings? I also need t

Bond Multiple Choice Questions

Indicate the number of possible stereoisomers for a linear aldopentose? a.4 b.8 c.12 d.16 What statement in incorrect about the following pairs of sugars? a. Galactose and mannose are diastereomers b. L-galactose and D-galactose are enantiomers c. Glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyactone are stereisomers d. Gulcose

Liptor, Bile Salts and Cholesterol

For lipitor, bile salt, and cholesterol and with knowledge of intermolecular forces, expalin the following: a. Which of the three will dissolve in blood and why? b. LDL (bad cholsterol) stands for Low Density Lipoprotein - that is- chlosterol (lipid) surrounded by protein. HDL (good cholosterol) stands for High Density Lip

Zwitterionic

Write out the un-ionized structure of valine & phnylalanine. Do either have enantiomers? Write the zwitterion structures of both. Show what happens if it becomes more acidic. Write structure for phe-val (ionized or unionized). Is it the same as val-phe? Why? Would the dipeptide be neutral, acidic, or basic? Why?

Monomers

Lipids (fats) are esters of long chain fatty acids and glycerol. Similarly, describe the general structures of proteins and carbohydrates. In other words, what are the monomers that these biological polymers are composed of? Thanks.

Problem Set

Please label the questions with the appropriate numbers to avoid confusion. 10. The figure below shows a somewhat condensed structural formula for acetaminophen, the active ingredient in Tylenol. CH3 CONH --- (a pentagon) ---- OH a. Write the complex structural formula for acetaminophen, showing all atoms and all bonds

Molecules, Compounds, etc.

Please see the attached file for full problem description. 18. Identify the functional groups in morphine and Demerol. Can these molecules be assigned to a particular class of compound? Why or why not? 21. Why of these compounds can exist in chiral forms? OH I a. H C

Cholesterol .....structure questions...

Please view the attachment...of diagram of cholesterol I. Which of the following groups of atoms lie in a common plane? (enter the letter label(s), unspaced--there may be more than one correct): A. 5,6,7,10 B. 1,2,3,4,5,10 C. 7,8,9,10,11 D. 24,25,26,27 II. What is the hybridization of atom number 27? (enter the lette

Amino Acids - Tertiary Structure

The following is a partial protein with 6 amino acids missing. Supply six DIFFERENT amino acids. Choose them such that the amino acids across from each other show tertiary structure interaction. Label the type of interaction (H-bonding, hydrophobic, ion-ion, etc). Please see attachment.

Determining if Molecules are Lipids

Are the following two molecule lipids? Explain your reasoning. If the molecule is a lipid, identify the "head" and "tail" section(s). Please see the attachment below for the structural formulas.