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Hydrocarbons and chemistry of functional groups

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Can you please help with the following review

1. Which of the following amino acids are chiral?
a) CH3CH(NH2)COOH
b) CH2(NH2)COOH
c) CH2(OH)CN(NH2)COOH

2.Identify the functional groups in each of the following molecules:
a) CH3CH2COCH2CH2CH3
b) CH3COOC2H5
c) CH3CH2OCH2CH2CH2CH3

3. How many liters of air (78% N2, 22% O2 by volume) at 20 degrees celcius and 1.00 atm are needed for the complete combustion of 1.0 L of octane, C8H18, a typical gasoline component that has a density of 70 g/mL?

4. Isopropanol is prepared by reacting propylene (CH3CHCH2) with sulfuric acid, followed by treatment with water.
a) show the sequence of steps leading to the product. What is the role of sulfuric acid?
b) draw the structure of an alcohol that is an isomer of isopropanol.
c) Is isopropanol a chiral molecule?
d) what property of isopropanol makes it useful as a rubbing alcohol?

5. Under conditions of acid catalysis, alkenes react with water to form alcohols. As in the case with hydrogen halides, the addition reaction in the formation of alcohols is also governed by Markovnikov's rule. An alkene of approximate molar mass of 42g reacts with water and sulfuric acid to produce a compound that reacts with acidic potassium dichromate solution to produce a ketone. Identify all the compounds in the preceding steps.

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Solution Preview

1. Which of the following amino acids are chiral?
a) CH3CH(NH2)COOH (this is chiral)
b) CH2(NH2)COOH
c) CH2(OH)CH(NH2)COOH (this is chiral)

A chiral molecule contains carbon atom to which, four different groups are attached. (Please refer to attached JPG file for structures of the above amino acids).

2.Identify the functional groups in each of the following molecules:
a) CH3CH2COCH2CH2CH3
- Ketone group (R-CO-R)

b) CH3COOC2H5
- Ester group (R-COO-R)

c) CH3CH2OCH2CH2CH2CH3
- Ether group (R-O-R)

3. How many liters of air (78% N2, 22% O2 by volume) at 20 degrees celcius and 1.00 atm ...

Solution Summary

Hydrocarbons and chemistry of functional groups are examined.

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Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Questions (Chang)

24.11) Draw all possible structural isomers for the following alkane: C7H16

24.27) Write the structural formulas for the following organic compounds:
(a) 3-methylhexane
(b) 1,3,5, trichlorocyclohexane
(c) 2, 3 dimethylpentane
(d) 2 bromo 4 phenylpentane
(e) 3,4,5, trimethyloctane

24.31) Write structures for the following compounds:
(a) 1-bromo-3-methylbenzene
(b) 1-chloro-2-propylbenzene
(c) 1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene

24.34) Draw the Lewis structure for each of the following functional groups:
Alcohol
Ether
Aldehyde
Ketone
Carboxylic acid
Ester
Amine

24.41) Predict the product or products of each of the following reactions:
(a) CH3CH2OH + HCOOH-
(b) H---C====C---CH3 + H2--
(c) C2H5 H
C==C +HBr
H H

24.43) Draw all the possible structural isomers for the molecule having the formula C7H7Cl. The molecule contains one benzene ring.

24.49) How many liters of air (78 percent N2, 22 percent O2 by volume) at 20 degrees Celsius and 1.00 atm are needed for the complete combustion of 1.0 L of octane, C8H18, a typical gasoline component that has a density of 0.70 g/mL?

24.53) Draw all the structural isomers of compounds with the formula C4H18Cl2. Indicate which isomers are chiral and give them systematic names.

24.59) Draw the structures for the following compounds:
(a) cyclopentane
(b) cis-2-butene
(c) 2-hexanol
(d) 1, 4-dibhromobenzene
(e) 2-butyne
24.67) Isopropanol is prepared by reacting propylene (CH3CHCH2) with sulfuric acid, followed by treatement with water.
(a) show the sequence of steps leading to the product. What is the role of sulfuric acid?
(b) Draw the structure of an alcohol that is an isomer of isopropanol.
(c)Is isopropanol a chiral molecule?
(d) What property of isopropanol makes it useful as a rubbing alcohol?

24.69) Under conditions of acid catalysis, alkenes react with water to form alcohols. As in the case with hydrogen halides, the addition reaction in the formation of alcohols is also governed by Markovnikov's rule. An alkene of approximate molar mass of 42 g reacts with water and sulfuric acid to produce a compound that reacts with acidic potassium dichromate solution to produce a ketone. Identify all the compounds in the preceeding steps.

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