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Organic Reactions

An Organic Reaction is a subset of chemical reactions involving carbon-based compounds. The main organic reactions include but are not limited to additions, eliminations, substitution, and redox reactions. These reactions are usually used in conjunction to either break down organic reactants or synthesize new organic compounds.

Organic synthesis is now an area of focus, as new organic molecules are heavily depended on in the fields of pharmacology, medicine, industry as well as fabrics. Since, organic molecules in general are a lot more complex than inorganic molecules, organic synthesis has developed into one of the most important branches not only in Organic Chemistry, but also Chemistry in general.

Although Organic Reactions are considered a subset of all chemical reactions, they are no different to other chemical reactions in terms of physical/chemical rules. The same factors govern the stability of the reactants, products, as well as ultimately the outcome the organic reactions.

Another prominent way to categorize organic reactions, which may prove more useful under some contexts, is by the functional groups undergoing the reactions. For example, in the Fries arrangement, the functional group in the reactant undergoing the reaction is an ester. Thus, it would be useful to an organic chemist to not only have a list of functional groups with their corresponding reactions, but also a way to prepare each functional group. 

Categories within Organic Reactions

Mass changes and mole calculation for catechol combustion

Data before combustion: NaOH = 34.085g P2O5 = 38.293g catechol = 05.000g Data after combustion: NaOH = 46.075g P2O5 = 40.747g I need help finding: mass of H2O mass of CO2 moles of H2O moles of CO2 moles of H atoms moles of C atoms mass of H mass of C

Organic Chemistry - Calculating Molar Solubility

6. Calculate the molar solubility of Mg(OII)_2 in a solution with a pH of 12.8 (K_op of Mg(OH)^2 is 1.2 * 10^-11 7. For a reaction to be spontaneous at any temperature, which one of the following is true: a) [delta] H is positive and [delta] S is positive b) [delta] H is positive and [delta] S is negative c) [delta] H is

Organic Molecules and Reactions

I have 6 (sample) organic chemistry problems I need help with please (see attached as well). Short answer - please help. 1. Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing acidity, and explain the reasons for your choice of order: a. Cyclohexanol b. 4-chlorophenol c. 2-fluorocyclohexanol d. 2-nitrophenol 2. Show

Organic Chemistry: Aldol Condensation and Reduction of Carbonyl

See the attachments. ALDOL CONDENSATION: PREPARATION OF TRANS-p-ANISALACETOPHENONE (Post Lab Questions: pp. 622-623, Problems 2, 5, 10) 2. Explain why the main reaction between acetophenone and p-anisaldehyde is the mixed-aldol reaction rather than (a) self-condensation of acetophenone or (b) the Cannizzaro reaction of p-

Transformations and Matching Mechanistic Class

I am totally confused on the topic of matching mechanistic class. Can you help me with an explanation, answering the attached problem below. This would be greatly appreciated. Thank you.

Organic Chemistry - Sample Questions

1. Write a structural formula for each of the following acids: a. 4-oxohexanoic acid b. 2-hydroxy-3-methylhexanoic acid c. 2-chloropentanedioic acid d. p-bromophenylacetic acid 2. Name each of the following acids (see attached). 3. In each of the following pairs of acids, which would be expected to be stronger, and w

Organic Chemistry Exercises

Please help with the following Organic Chemistry exercises. Please see the attachment for the full questions. 1. Write a structural formula for each of the following compounds: a. isopropyl methyl ether b. trans-2-pentene oxide c. 3-ethoxyhexane d. ethylene glycol dipropyl ether 2. Name each of the following compoun

Organic Chemistry: Electron-Dot Formulas

Draw electron-dot formulas for the following ionic species. Show the formal charges on individual atoms in each ion. Please refer to attachment for full questions.

Solving organic chemistry problems

Please see the attached. Methylene diphenyl di-isocyanate (MDI) is used as an adhesive ----- it is often cross-linked with maleic anhydride when in the presence of water. We are asked to explain and detail out the structural components of this reaction. I have a theory 1A and theory 1B ----- my guess is that the maleic

Priorities of R, S Conventions

• How many possible trisubstituted derivatives C6H3X2Y can be btained from the meta disubstituted benzene C6H4X2? (Ignore directive effects of the substituents X and assume that all positions on the ring are accessible to the reagent Y+). 1. One 2. Two 3. Three 4. four • In assigning priorities according t

Various Organic Chemistry Questions

I am taking an entrance exam for graduate school next month and I've been out of school for over a year now and I really need help and indepth explanations on how to do these problems from the online practice test. I am also using review notes from class and notecards to help me, but I want more help on an actual practice exam.

Reactions of 3 Hydrocarbons: Cyclohexane, Cyclohexene and Toluene

Hello, it looks lilke a lot to read but it all comes together quickly. The actual experiment has already been performed and the results have been recorded in the table (last page). Please look at what is in RED color - that is what needs to be answered in a more elaborated conclusion/lab report form (but it doesn't have to b

Biochemical Oxygen Demand Calculation

The biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is the capacity of organic and biological matter in natural water to consume oxygen. It is determined experimentally by measuring the oxygen concentration in a sealed sample before and after a 5-day incubation period. The standard titration procedure reacts the oxygen in the sample with mang

Chair Conformation Problem

I am very confused on a few things regarding chair conformation (mainly in regards to hoe axial vs. equatorial positioning affects the structure). I guess what I am looking for is a general tutorial of how quite a few things work. I have encountered quite a few questions on homework assignments that require knowledge of the f

Best Reagent or Sequence of Reagents

1. Choose the best reagent or sequence of reagents from the list provided below to carry out the following synthetic transformations. Place the letter of your response to the left of the reaction. ( 9 pts.) a. PBr3 d. SOCl2, pyridine b. HCl(gas), ether e. HBr(gas), ether c. 1. Mg, ether f. 1. Mg, ether 2. D

Origins of Life on Earth: Francis Crick

An interesting topic relevant to organic chemistry is the origins of life on Earth, Francis Crick, co-discoverer of the structure of DNA, believes that life couldn't have possibly formed on Earth, and supports the notion of panspermia. What types of limitations and obstacles must any plausible origin of life scenario overcome

IUPAC Product Reactions

1. Provide proper IUPAC names for each of the following compounds or structures for each of the following names of organic compounds as appropriate. (a) (2Z,4Z)-hexadiene (b) (E)-1-chloropropene 2. MATCH each definition to the term it describes. Place the letter corresponding to the term in the blank to the left of

Organic Structures, Reactions and Nomenclature

Write the structural formula for the compounds cited below. Be sure to include all carbon and hydrogen! (a) Ethylpropyl ether (b) 2 ethyl 2,4,4-trimethylpentanoic acid (c) methyl pentanoate (d) hexachlorobenzene (e) 2,4,6-trichloro-3,5-dimethylphenol (f) Propylamine Esterification is the reaction of a

Organic Chemistry : Carboxylic Acids

1. Which reaction sequence represents the best synthesis of benzoic acid (C6H5COOH)? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 5 2. What is the product of the following reaction sequence? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 3. Which one of the following is the strongest acid? a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 5 4. Compare the two

Laboratory : Reaction of Hydrogen Peroxide with Potassium Permanganate

1. For the NEW bottle of hydrogen peroxide, record and calculate the following: (a) Initial burette reading of potassium permanganate used in each titration (mL) and concentration: (b) The volume of potassium permanganate required to titrate each 10.00 mL portion of the new hydrogen peroxide (mL): (record all thr

Bromine Water and the Wacker Oxidation

1. In the reaction of bromine and water to form a halohydrin the reaction goes through a bromonium ion, Why does water attack the more substituted carbon? 2. In the Wacker oxidation, why does water attack the more substituted carbon of the alkene If the water had attacked the less substituted alkene to form an alehyde, ho

Organic Synthesis : Identify the Products Word Problem and Mechanisms

Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problems. 10. A compound C10H13NO (A) has the following 1H NMR spectrum: delta (ppm) Integration Multiplicity 7.4-7.2 4H multiplet 3.2 3H singlet 2.3 3H singlet 1.8 3H singlet Compound A was insoluble in 5% aqueous HCl, but dissolved slowly on heating with aqueous sod

Organic Synthesis : Assigning Structures - Roadmap Problems

Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problems. 1. A compound A had the formula C10H8, and showed two H NMR peaks (which were both broad multiplets) at 7.70 and 7.86ppm, in the ratio 1:1. When treated with alkaline KMnO4, compound A gave CO2, Water and compound B, which had the formula C8H4O3. Compound B react

Acid-Catalyzed Conversion and Self-Condensation

1. Refer to attached rxn. Write the complete stepwise mechanism for the acid-catalyzed conversion of the enol into its keto form, Compound C. 2. Give major organic products. Show all relevant stereochemistry. 3 and 4. Draw the structure of the aldol self-condensation product for each of the following compounds. If a compou

Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Questions (Chang)

24.11) Draw all possible structural isomers for the following alkane: C7H16 24.27) Write the structural formulas for the following organic compounds: (a) 3-methylhexane (b) 1,3,5, trichlorocyclohexane (c) 2, 3 dimethylpentane (d) 2 bromo 4 phenylpentane (e) 3,4,5, trimethyloctane 24.31) Write structures for the