Procedure: "In a 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask containing a magnetic stirring bar, mix 0.05 mol of benzaldehyde with the theoretical quantity of acetone, and add one-half the mixture to a solution of 5 g of sodium hydroxide dissolved in 50 mL of water and 40 mL of ethanol at room temperature (<25oC). After 15 min of stirring, add th
I am to identify organic compounds in medications. I chose to look at Orajel first. I am to determine the structure of one active component and identify three functional groups on each molecule. Based on the functional groups present in the drug molecules, predict the physical properties of the molecule the drug would interact
Carbon is a fascinating element that is capable of forming four covalent bonds. Remembering molecular geometry, an element bonded to four separate atoms forms a symmetrical tetrahedron. When the elements are either carbon or hydrogen the molecule is nonpolar. Nonpolar compounds are insoluble in water. Examples of this includ
12.0 g of isopentyl alcohol mixed with 20 mL glacial acetic acid and 1.2 mL of H2SO4. This is refluxed for an hour. Must use 20 mL of diethyl ether as the extraction solvent. What is the procedure for the extractions (to MAXIMIZE THE YIELD) and volumes? (i.e. How much water, NaCl, sodium bicarbonate and in what order)?
We are doing an unknown aldehyde and ketones test. The instruction for the test is below. 1) The melting point you determine for the derivatives you prepare may not match exactly with the reference tables. However, you can be sure that the experimental melting points will always be lower than the reference values. Why? How m
1. Define and describe the properties of Bronsed conjugate acid base pairs and how they relate to the pH scale? 2. Calculate the pH or pOH values for a given ion concentration. 3. Differentiate between strong and weak acids and bases and calculate the ion concentrations for weak acids and bases given an equilibrium constan
Please see the attached file. 1. Write the complete stepwise mechanism for the reaction below. Show all intermediate structures and all electron flow arrows. 2. Give the major organic product(s) of each of the following reactions or sequences of reactions. Show all relevant stereochemistry. 3. Classify the following ni
I performed a lab entitled: Acid-catalyzed dehydration of alcohols. I have the file attached in word. My problem is I need to know the reaction equations using structure and names from the attached file. I also have a file from the spectrum of butenes. I need the labeling of the 3 dark peaks of butenes cis and trans. My permang
Please note: questions that require the textbook are not included in this response. 1. If 3-bromo-1-propanol is treated with NaOH, a compound of molecular formula C3H6O is formed. Suggest a structure for this product. 2. What product(s) would you expect to form when tetrahydrofuran is treated with excess hydroiodic acid (HI)
Part 1 1. Offer an explanation of why anthracene preferentially forms a Diels-Alder adduct at 9,10 positions. 2. There are four reasonable resonance structures for anthracene. Draw them. 3. A large number of polycyclic benzenoid aromatic hydrocarbons are known. One of these, benz/a/pyrene, is a powerful carcinogen found in to
1. In the preparation of the esters given in this experiment, the reaction product was extracted with 5% sodium bicarbonate solution (NaHCO3) in the isolation step. Why? What gas was evolved during this washing step? Write a balanced equation for the reaction that produced it. 2. Why is a large excess of acetic acid used in
Without stratospheric ozone (O3), harmful solar radiation would cause gene alterations. Ozone forms when O2 breaks and each O atom reacts with another O2 molecule. It is destroyed by reaction with Cl atoms formed when the C-Cl bond in synthetic chemicals breaks. Find the wavelengths of light that can break the C-Cl bond AND the
Why production of certain vapors would be reduced when a mixture of methanoic acid, ethanoic acid and phenol are treated with calcium carbonate.
Assume the following: Methanoic acid, ethanoic acid, and phenol are present in solution. It is assumed that without any chemical adulteration that sufficient heat will cause these organic acids to convert to formaldehyde, methanol, and phenol gas/vapor. The lab objective is to prevent the formation of these organic vapors.
Please see the attached file for the complete problems. 1. Predict the product of the reaction below. Be sure to indicate stereochemistry when appropriate. 2. Provide proper IUPAC names for each compound below. 3. The compound below has been isolated from the safflower plant. Consider its structure to answer the follow
5. Determine the percent yield of your product para red dye. Base your calculation on the amount of 2-naphthol that was weighed out. See the attached document for the data. CHM 339 Title of Laboratory: Preparation and Use of Para Red Dye Purpose: Diazonium salts are formed from the reaction of nitrous acid and a prim
Write the balanced equation, the balanced net ionic equation, and answer the question. 1.) Glacial acetic acid is mixed with liquid methanol (nonaqueous). What type of organic reaction can this be characterized as? 2.) Chlorine gas is bubbled into cold, dilute solution of potassium hydroxide. What element is un
Please help me with this questions. I am having hard time answering these questions. Thanks. 1) Explain carefully, with a drawing, why the protons substituted ortho to an acetyl group normally have a greater chemical shift than the other protons on the ring. 2) Write equations for what happens when aluminum chloride is hy
The high temperature pulping/digesting of wood generates methanoic, ethanoic, benzoic, and butanoic acids in solution. It is believed that under higher temperatures, these organic acids volatilize to their aldehyde or alcohol equivalents such as methanol, formaldehyde, benzene, butane etc. etc. It has been suggested that carb
1. Draw the structures of salicylic acid and aspirin. Circle and identify the functional groups present in each compound. 3. Sulfuric acid is a catalyst. What does that mean? 5. What safety, environmental and economic considerations would be important to a company manufacturing 1 million pounds of aspirin each year by this
1. Identify four moisture-protected reaction apparatus. I have identified 2 apparatus (Moisture-protected Claisen head with 3 or 5mL conical vial, arranged for syringe addition and magnetic stirring, and Moisture-protected water-jacketed condenser with 3 or 5mL conical vial, arranged for heating and magnet stirring). I may be
We are preparing an a,b-unsaturated ketone via Michael and aldol condensation reactions. The reactants are trans-chalcone and ethyl acetoacetate (in ethanol and NaOH). This creates 6-ethoxycarbonyl-3,5-diphenyl-2-cyclohexenone. What I'm wondering is: Why is it possible to separate the product from sodium hydroxide using a
Organic Chemistry Problems The basicity of aromatic amines depends on the electron donation or electron withdrawing groups attached to the benzene ring, the more the number of electron donating group attached to the ring the more basic the compound will be. Nitration of toluene gives three products. The rearrangement products
One of the many approaches to ester synthesis is the SN2 reaction of a carboxylate anion with an unhindered alkyl halide. For instance, the reaction of trans-4-methoxycinnamic acid to ethyl trans-4-methoxycinnamate (refer to attached document for mechanism of reaction). 1. Although the sodium salt of trans-4-methoxycinnamic
How would you write a balanced chemical equation using structural formulas to show how acetic acid reacts weakly with water to transfer a proton and produce a hydronium and an acidic ion? What is the balanced reaction sentence using structural formulas to show how salicylic acid reacts with a 6 M NaOH base to form sodium sali
1. Classify the reaction shown below: CH3CH2CHOHCH3 -------------> CH3CH2COCH3 a. oxidation b. reduction c. acid-base d. none of the above 2. When (R)-2-butanol is treated with TsCl in pyridine, the product formed is... a. a single enantiomer b. a racemic mixture c. a mixture of diastereomers d. a
20. Discuss what you would observe after elution and visualization of a TLC plate having made the following mistakes in carrying out the analysis. a. The solvent level in the developing jar was higher than the original line on which the samples were spotted. b. Too much sample was applied to the TLC plate. 14. Suggest a
13. What chemical tests might be used to distinguish between pentanal and 2- pentanone; between benzyl alcohol and diphenylmethanol? 17. The haloform reaction using 12 and NaOH is referred to as the "iodoform" test for methyl ketones. The test also gives positive results for compounds containing the -CH(OH)CH3 group. This
It includes mechanism for nitration of 1,4-dichloro benzene and answers questions related to acidity of phenols and rearrangement of keto-enol (pinacol-pinacolone)
1. Write equations to show how nitronium ions might be formed using a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids. 3. Give a reasonable explanation of why nitration of 1,4-dichloro-benzene yields the mononitro derivative while N,N'-diacetyl-1,4-phenylenediamine forms the dinitro compound. 4. Explain why p-nitrophenol is a stro
A younger student is contemplating taking Advanced Organic Chemistry CHM 338 next year and asks you about the course. To help your friend capture the essential aspects of Isotope Effects (primary and secondary), clearly illustrate in 200-300 words with appropriately drawn diagrams, mechanism that help clarify your explanation.
I have to perform two synthesises of the compounds shown in the attatchment. I have to use the following starting materials as sources of carbon: benzene, acetylene, diidomethane, carbon dioxide, sodium cyanide, and any monofunctional alcohol with three carbons or less. What are some good suggestions as to the methods/routes I s