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Organic Chemistry Bonding

In Organic Chemistry, Bonding refers to the process of a carbon-based molecule forming a chemical bond due to the attractive interactions between two atoms. This attraction may be seen as a consequence of the nucleophilic properties of the substituents binding to the carbon – this is because carbon usually has a net positive dipole (although there are a few exceptions).

In organic compounds, carbon is usually bonded to electronegative substituents. For example, the ketone functional group has an oxygen atom double bonded to the central carbon. Due to oxygen’s electronegativity, the electrons shared within the double bond are pulled towards the oxygen and away from the carbon. This electrostatic phenomenon causes the carbon to possess a partial positive charge. It is this dipole which makes the carbon so susceptible to many of the organic reactions where other substituents can bond to it.

For example, in a typical SN2 reaction (which proceeds in a bimolecular manner), a nucleophile attacks the electrophile (due to the partial positive charge of the carbon) causing the leaving group to leave. This creates a new covalent bond which renders the carbon more stable. However, bonding can take place at a different rate in an SN1 reaction where a carbocation forms. This would form a stronger electrostatic force between the two entities causing them to bond immediately.

The phenomenon of bonding spans the spectrum of all reactions –by using this example of a SN1 reaction, it can be seen that understanding the rationale behind this behavior is crucial to predicting the outcome of reactions as well as three dimensional arrangements of atoms within a molecule.

products of mass spectrometry and stability

I wonder about a mass spectrometry problem where they define which m/z that would appear for a molecule and why another m/z value does not appear that has a primary radical and a secondary cation. I know that the primary radical is unstable but the secondary cation is more stable than other products. Could one explain this by ra

Why E2 is favored over SN2

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Electronic Configuration, Formation and Enthalpy of Activation

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Writing Equations for Each of the Given Reagents

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Cellulose Chemistry

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Bonding and Compound Questions

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Frontier Orbitals

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Molecular Geometry and Bonding: Example Problems

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Alkene Hydration: Water and 4-methyl-2-pentene.

In an experiment you combine 4-methyl-2-pentene and water, in the lab you setup the experiment using a a heater, condenser and N2 gas and add the reagent H2SO4, the product formed is 2-methyl-2-pentanol. Which molecular species would be necessary for the formation of the product in the reaction; a primary carbocation, a tertiar

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Aldol Reaction Lab Questions

Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problems. Question 1: In the reaction of 4-Nitrobenzaldehyde + Acetophenone -> trans-4-Nitrochalcone a. The yield of the reaction to form your chalcone is not quantitative. What side products might be formed from your aldol condensation? b. If one uses benza

Chemical Bonding : Effective Charge

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Reactivity of Xenon and Other Noble Gases

Question 1 Kn1 knowledge and understanding of atomic and molecular structure, chemical bonding, chemical formulas, chemical equations, mole calculations and the mole concept and the relation between elements of the Periodic Table. Ky1 use mathematical skills appropriate to the study of science at this level, in particular: n

Synthesis for the final compound from benzene or toluene

1. Show a set of pathways (some good, some bad) for making the target from benzene in three steps. See file attachment. 2. Show a resonable synthesis for the compound in fig 2 starting from benzene or toluene. See file attachment 3. Consider a synthesis of the following alcohol starting from bromobenzene and any other re

Solutions: Concentration and Mass Calculations (Fully Worked)

Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problem(s). Activity - Solution Calculations 1. What is the Zn(NO3)2 percent composition by weight of a solution made by dissolving 15.5 g of zinc nitrate, Zn(NO3) 2, in 45.0 g of water? (%) Use three significant figues in your answer. 2. How many moles of sodium hyd

Questions for an Organic Chemistry Lab

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the relationship (if any) of the lattice energy of compounds

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Ionic and covalent bonds story

Please help me with some ideas for this assignment - I will write it myself, just need some ideas: I need to create a creative story that uses the concepts and shows understanding of ionic and covalent bonds.

Nomenclature Problems

Draw the chemical structure for 2-butyl-2propyl ether. What is the IUPAC name for the following structure? (HINT: The "cross" is a methane-like structure) What is the IUPAC name for the following structure?

Tetracyclines and organic compounds

I am to identify organic compounds in medications. I am to determine the structure of one active component and identify three functional groups on each molecule. Based on the functional groups present in the drug molecules, predict the physical properties of the molecule the drug would interact with. This gets the "molecular

Synthesis of Dibenzalacetone from Bezaldehyde and Acetone

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Functional Groups and Household Products

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Mechanism for an Organic Chemistry Reaction

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Aldol Reactions : Trans-4-Nitrochalcone

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