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Organic Chemistry Bonding

the relationship (if any) of the lattice energy of compounds

Hello: I need help understanding the relationship (if any) of the lattice energy of compounds such as ZnO vs. H3BO3 vs. their respective solubilities. For instance, at neutral pH and standard conditions, I'm trying to understand why ZnO is much much less soluble in water than is H3BO3 --- is it possible because of a differ

Tetracyclines and organic compounds

I am to identify organic compounds in medications. I am to determine the structure of one active component and identify three functional groups on each molecule. Based on the functional groups present in the drug molecules, predict the physical properties of the molecule the drug would interact with. This gets the "molecular

Synthesis of Dibenzalacetone from Bezaldehyde and Acetone

Reacting Benzaldehyde with acetone to yield Dibenzalacetone. Increased the amount of benzaldehyde used from 2 equivalents to 4 equivalents. NaOH catalyst solution and benzaldehyde is stirred, BEFORE adding the acetone. Added acetone to solution. This mixture is stirred for 30 min and a yellow precipitate is collected (dibe

Aldol Reactions : Trans-4-Nitrochalcone

8.88) In a number of cases it is possible to successfully isolate the B-Hydroxyketone intermediate prior to the dehydration that froms the alpha,Beta unsaturated ketone. (a) Does the isolation of the B-Hydroxyketone suggest which step in the aldol condesnation is the rate determining step in this case? (b)if so, Which one is t

Solubility of Alcohols

Explain why alcohols such as ethanol and propanol are soluble in water, butanol is moderately soluble and pentanol is slightly soluble. Why? What role does hydrogen bonding and non-polar forces play in these solubilities?

Cycloalkanes, Isomers, and Organic Compounds

I) What causes cycloalkanes to have two less hydrogen atoms than similar alkanes that are open chain ones? i) What is the three dimensional structure of methane? Why? ii) Name an isomer of pentane (that is not cyclic), and write down its structure. iii) Name the compounds that are organic: (1) KMnO4 (2) CH3OH (3) C6H6 (4

Alcohol Reaction Questions

1.) Suggest a chemical test that would allow you to distinguish between tert-butyl alcohol and 1 butanol, both of which give a positive ceric nitrate test? 2.) Why are axial and equatorial hydroxyl isomers for 4 tert butylcyclohexanone, but not for cyclohexanol itself? ( I was thinking steric factors?) 3.) I have to bala

Benzyl Dissolution Questions

1) "Dissolve .5 g of benzyl in a 5mL of 95% ethanol and cool the solution under the tap to produce a fine suspension. Then add .1 g of sodium borohydride (large excess)." a. The text refers to 10 mg NaBH4 as a large excess to 50 mg benzi. Do the stoichiometric calculation to show this. Also calculate the theoretical yield of p

IUPAC Names of Organic Structures

I need some help with IUPAC naming. There are 7 problems on the attached sheet. These are the ones I am having trouble figuring out. Please try and give explanations to help me learn. Thank you.

16 Proton and Carbon NMRs Explained and Labelled

Please see the diagrams below. I have to identify the compound from the spectra and the steps to get the compound. IR spectral and NMR peaks have to be identified by reference to specific atoms in the final structure. I must also show the formula determination. I am stuck on the completion. On my first page for C5H10O2,(1st

Alcohol Reacions and Comnformations of Cyclic Alcohols

Please see the attached file for diagrams. 1. Choose the best reagent for carrying out the following reactions from the list below. Place the letter of the reagent(s) in the box over the reaction arrow. Only one letter per box (10 points). a. NaH, then CH3I b. NaOCH3, CH3OH c. m-ClC6H4CO3H d. CH3MgBr in ether, then H

Oxidation of Alcohols

I am confused about oxidation in organic chemistry. Why exactly are oxidation reactions one in which a oxygen is inserted into a bond, hydrogen is removed from a bond, and a more electronegative atom is inserted in the bond, replacing a carbon or a hydrogen. But why exactly does oxidation occur in this fashion? Also, I don't

Dehydration of Cyclohexanol Lab Questions

I had a lab on the dehydration of cyclohexanol and I am not trying to understand certain concepts. Here are some questions I am trying to figure out: - The product ratio is Saytzeff > Hofmann for both E1 and E2 reactions. What causes this to be the case for each reaction? I understand slightly that for E2 its steric hindrance

Metals Covalently Bonded to Benzene

I've noticed that my book does not mention metals as a possible substituent for mono-substituted benzenes, but it doesn't begin to explain why. Also I have had trouble finding reasons why online. Specifically I am interested to know why you don't see metals bonded to benzene with a covalent sigma bond. I am not interested in

Analysis of KH / KD and Mechanism Predictions, Chirality and Prochirality

1. Label all prochiral hydrogens (including Re and Si faces) in R-2,4-dimethyl-3-heptanone. 2. Consider the asymmetric deuteration shown below. a. To which face of the prochiral double bond did the deuteriums add to? b. Assign configurations to all chiral centers in the molecule. c. Assign E/Z configuration to the starting

Twelve problems relating to conjugation, dienes and aromaticity.

Please see the attached file for the completely formatted problems. 1. Circle any conjugated portions in the molecule below. 2. Consider the reaction below to answer the following questions: 3. The nucleophile in this reaction is __________. 4. The electrophile in this reaction is __________. 5. The product that r

Organic chemistry ACQ questions

The questions involve ordering the answer either from lower to higher acidity or basicity include the nucleophilic and electrophilec site of actions.

Catalyst to Reduce Cure Temperature in Bonding Wood with MDI

I have a wood chemistry course that indicates that methylene diphenylisocyanate (MDI) is used as a common resin and/or glue in bonding wood fibers together in composite type substrates. The cure temperature is given as approximately 425 degrees F. I have a test question that asks us to hypothesize about a chemical additive to

Precipitation of inorganic (metals) in a water treatment system?

Please help and explain to me clearly......a wastewater contains various cations such as Na, K, Mg, Ca, Ba, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Al; the pH of the wastewater is approx. 6.0 To that wastewater is added H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) in an approximate dose of .00034 gals of H3PO4 per gallon of wastewater. I'm less concerned about the st

Boiling Points

4. The atmospheric pressure in La Grande (683 atmospheric pressure) is significantly lower than that of Portland (760 normal pressure). How would the boiling points of a liquid compare in these two locations? Why? 5. Explain and illustrate why ethanol (molar mass 46g) has a higher boiling point than diethylether (molar mass 74g

Newman conformation of 1-bromopropane

Draw a diagram to show the changes in potential energy that occur from the rotation around the C1-C2 bond of 1-bromopropane. Draw Newman projection formulae to correspond with each maximum and minimum.

combustion, dehydration and oxidation of alcohols

1. Write equations for the combustion, dehydration and oxidation of these alcohols and give the group names of the products. a. C3H7OH b. CH3CHOHCH3 c. (CH3)2COHCH3 2. a. What is the general formula for Alkynes? b. If an alkyne is progressively hydrogenated by an addition process, what is the final product of the process? Us

H NMR and C NMR

In this problem the tertiary alcohol below was subjected to dehydration with phosphorous oxychloride. The potential products are shown below. The product was isolated and purified by distillation. An NMR of the major product exhibited two triplets only, one centered at 2.1δ and the other at 0.9δ . Indicate the prod

H NMR and C NMR

Each word document contains one problem. I need the structures that go along with each spectrum. See attached file for full problem description. 1. Near the peaks the numbers are given, which are the integrations, give the number of protons. Please give a structure for the formula C8H8O, which is consistent with the H NM

Water and Oil

1. Describe the physical properties of oil and water. Discuss why they do not mix. 2. Describe the chemical composition of crude oil and how your simulation mimics an oil spill. 3. Describe at least 4 methods that could be used to attempt to separate the oil and water at home. Based on the four methods postulate which me

Drawing Products of Reactions

Draw the product of the reaction shown. What alkene could be used to make this dialdehyde? See attached file for full problem description.

Stereochemistry of the Addition of Bromine to Trans-Cinnamic Acid

The question is attached and here are the Directions: Based on the mechanism present, predict the product of this reaction. Highlight the Br-C-C-Br dihedral angle. Is the diehdral angle (0 degrees for sin addition or 180 degrees for anti addition)? Look at the dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the carboxylic