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Organic Chemistry Bonding

Groups on a benzene ring

What determines whether a group on a benzene ring will be activating or deactivating and ortho para or meta directing?

Common Acids - Naming and Defining

How can you know that HNO3 is nitric acid and HNO2 is nitrous acid? How do you know the difference in endings? Is there a formula for this to tell the difference? They are so closely related. I see this is common when naming acids. How can you tell as well, that HCLO is chloric acid. I would think it was hydrochloric acid.


I am having some trouble explaining why the attached molecule is an otho-para director although a weak deactivator. I believe it is because of resonance forms, but that is as far as I have gotten. Thanks,

Drawing the Structure of a Compound

1. Draw the structure of Compound A based on its formula and proton NMR. The integration of the peaks from left to right is 5:2:1. Compound A, MF C7H8O 2. Draw the structure of Compound B. Hint: The IR spectrum shows a strong bond at 1725 cm^-1. 3. Draw the structure of Compound C. Hint: The IR spectrum shows no peaks nea

Cyclic Alkyne reaction with KMnO4 and O3

Molecule 1: 5 carbon ring, carbon 1 has a carbon attached which also is triple bonded to another carbon (this end carbon just has a H attached.) There is also a double bond between carbons 1 and 2 in the ring. Predict the product when this reacts with KMnO4 in H30+. Molecule 2: I have a 6 carbon ring. C1 has a C which is

Determine the Functional Group

For problems 1 through 3, determine the functional group from the following spectra. There is only one functional group per compound. Determine whether the compound is aromatic or not aromatic. Follow the instructions attached.

Aromatic Compounds and Cycloheptatrienyl

Explain the following: a.) The cycloheptatrienyl anion is antiaromatic, whereas the cyclononatetraenyl anion is planar (in spite of the angle stain involved) and appears to be aromatic. b.) Although [16] annulene is not aromatic, it adds two electrons readily to form an aromatic dianion.

Retrosynthesis of a Molecule

Provide a retrosynthetic analysis and the forward synthsis of the following molecule, starting from commercially available compounds. The retrosynthesis should clearly identify the synthons and their synthetic equivalents. Functional group interconversions and bond disconnections should be clearly indicated where appropriate. Th

Electrophilic Addition - Mechanism and Product

Show the mechanism and product of the following electrophilic addition to a conjugated diene using curved arrows to show bond-making and bond-breaking process. (See attachement for full question)

Material purified from safflower oil

Provide me with your exact logic used to get the answer. A mysterious material was purified from safflower oil (hint: full of fatty acids). Upon ozonolysis it gave the following compounds in their respective molar ratios. Draw the structure of the mysterious material and give me its common name. 3 moles CHOCH2CHO 1 mol

Synthesizing 3-hexanone

I am trying to synthesize 3-hexanone from acetylene and ethyl bromide. Any help with how this can be done?

Structure for 2 products

I need help determining how the products below might be formed and what their structures might look like: Br2(over Arrow) 2-butyne --------->C4H6Br2(28%yld) + C6H12Br2O2(65%yld) CH3OH(under arrow) Thanks for any help!

PH and Biochemistry

I need some help to get me started: Determine the weight in grams of sodium dihydrogen phosphate (M.W.138.01) and disodium hydrogen phosphate (M.W 141.98) needed to prepare 1L of a standard buffer at pH 7.00, with a total phosphate concentration of 0.100M. Okay I know that the pKa is going to be 6.86. I am therefore going

Deduce the structure and give the name.

I am pretty sure that I have figured out the problem, just one peice is stumping me. Do you think that you can help me figure out the structure and name. What I have may possibly be right. Question: Analyze the data given in each of the problems below, deduce the structure and give the name. A fishy-smelling liquid with

Ion Shapes

Predict the shape of the following ions: a) NO3 - b) NO2 +

Methylated lidocaine

Lidocaine is thought to bind to receptors in its methylated form. identify in writting the atoms or groups in the compound that could be involved in its binding to a receptor via- hydrogen bonding (1 example) an ionic interaction give the 2 types of functional groups that need to be present in the receptor s

Hydrolysis of Lidocaine

Draw the abbreviated structural formula of the products of the complete hydrolysis of lidocain. Identify any new functional groups naming them clearly.

NMR Spectrum

My questions are: what would the question look like for which this NMR can be used? What would the IR and mass spectrum look like? What do I need to recognize on each spectrum to answer the same questions given in the Garden Cress problem?

MS Spectrum and NMR Spectra

1. The presence of nitrogen in an MS spectrum produces an odd numbered molecular ion. Indicate which of these four spectra shows presence of sulfur, chlorine, bromine, iodine or nitrogen in the molecule. Suggest a molecular formula for the nitrogen-containing compound. You may indicate the relevant fragments on the spectrum. Ple


1) Show that pyrrole is aromatic. 2) Account for its aromaticity on the basis of orbital theory.

Name of an Alkyne

What is the name of this Alkyne? CH3CH2C=C (Note: the above "=" symbol should be 3 lines.)

Compound Naming: Aliphatic Hydrocarbon

Attached is the IR, NMR and Mass spec of a compound included is the formula molecular weight. Write a structure consistent with the data and draw a molecular ion. I have circled the OH Peak.

Bromination of trans-cinnamic acid

I recently did an experiment where the addition of bromine to trans-cinnamic acid gives a dibromide with two stereocenters (chiral centers). Thus, there were four stereoisomers possible (see figures on page 136 on attachment). According to the melting points of my product, I ended up with the racemic mixture (2R,3S) and (2S,