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Organic Chemistry Bonding

Newman conformation of 1-bromopropane

Draw a diagram to show the changes in potential energy that occur from the rotation around the C1-C2 bond of 1-bromopropane. Draw Newman projection formulae to correspond with each maximum and minimum.

combustion, dehydration and oxidation of alcohols

1. Write equations for the combustion, dehydration and oxidation of these alcohols and give the group names of the products. a. C3H7OH b. CH3CHOHCH3 c. (CH3)2COHCH3 2. a. What is the general formula for Alkynes? b. If an alkyne is progressively hydrogenated by an addition process, what is the final product of the process? Us

Chemical Reaction for Vitamins and Lysine

Vitamin b6 is needed in the metabolism of amino acids. When it binds to an enzyme it forms a complex with the e-amino group of lysine, which is a primary amine. What chemical reactions would you do to show that there is a covalent complex with the vitamin and the e-amino group of lysine?

CHEMISTRYChemistry: Dialetric constrants

Explain the following observations. 1. Aziridines, compounds that contain nitrogen in a three-membered ring, undergo pyramidal inversion much more slowly than do other alkylamines. 2. The rate constant for formation of tetraethylammonium iodide form triethylamine and ethyl iodide is more than 800 times greater (at 100 degrees c

Explaining the Reaction

If you treat an aldehyde with HCN you produce a cyanohydrin. For example, H2C=O + HCN equilibrium H2C-C (triple bond) N l O-H However, if you treat formaldehyde (CH2O)

H NMR and C NMR

In this problem the tertiary alcohol below was subjected to dehydration with phosphorous oxychloride. The potential products are shown below. The product was isolated and purified by distillation. An NMR of the major product exhibited two triplets only, one centered at 2.1δ and the other at 0.9δ . Indicate the prod

H NMR and C NMR

Each word document contains one problem. I need the structures that go along with each spectrum. See attached file for full problem description. 1. Near the peaks the numbers are given, which are the integrations, give the number of protons. Please give a structure for the formula C8H8O, which is consistent with the H NM

Water and Oil

1. Describe the physical properties of oil and water. Discuss why they do not mix. 2. Describe the chemical composition of crude oil and how your simulation mimics an oil spill. 3. Describe at least 4 methods that could be used to attempt to separate the oil and water at home. Based on the four methods postulate which me

Drawing Products of Reactions

Draw the product of the reaction shown. What alkene could be used to make this dialdehyde? See attached file for full problem description.

Stereochemistry of the Addition of Bromine to Trans-Cinnamic Acid

The question is attached and here are the Directions: Based on the mechanism present, predict the product of this reaction. Highlight the Br-C-C-Br dihedral angle. Is the diehdral angle (0 degrees for sin addition or 180 degrees for anti addition)? Look at the dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the carboxylic

Order of Acid Strength of Ions

Amines (1) are basic. The protonation results in formation of ammonium ion. 2. Using the analogy with hydrocarbon acidities, predict the order of acid strength of the three ammonium ions 3, 4, and 5. Explain your answer.

Strain or Steric energy

Please draw the structures neatly and clearly and follow directions. If you have a Chem drawing program (i.e. ChemDraw, Chem3D), I will increase the credit, if not please draw them out by hand. Strain or Steric energy (a) Choose an alkene having cis and trans isomers and draw one of these (give name of alkene also).

FeCl2 vs KCl and Empirical Formulas

Explain why a 1M solution of the compound FeCl2 in water has a lower freezing temperature than a 1M solution of KCl in water and what is the empirical formula of a compound that is 21.96% S (sulfur) and 78.04% Fe by weight?

Heating Organic Acids

When maleic acid is heated to about 100C it forms maleic anhydride. However, fumaric acid requires a much higher temperature (250-300C) before it dehydrates. In addition, it forms only maleic anhydride. Explain.

Resonance structures and bond lengths and types in molecules

(See attached file for full problem description) a. The structure of 1,3-butadiene is usually written as H2C==CH--CH==CH2. The average bond lengths given are: C--C of 154pm and C==C of 133pm. Explain the fact that the observed value of the distance between the two central carbon atoms in 1,3-butadiene is 146pm. b. Which

Reduction of Carvone

In the reduction of a carvone can you effectively form an isomer when C=O is reduced?

DEET NMR

Why does DEET NMR show 2 triplets and 2 quartets at lower temperature 9C but 1 of each at higher temperature 80 C?

Short answer questions on human DNA, stearic acid, and aldaric acid

(See attached file for full problem description) D. Human DNA contains about 30% each of adenine and thymine and about 20% each of guanine and cytosine. The bacteria Clostridium perfringes contains about 37% adenine and thymine and 13% guanine and cytosine. Explain how this information relates to the structure of DNA in gene

Drawings of structures of amino acids

(See attached file for full problem descriptions) E. Draw the structure of the disaccharide cellubiose, This is two glucose monosaccharides with a beta-1,4' glucosidic linkage. Circle the anomeric carbon. Is this a reducing sugar? Explain. 2. See the attachment for the three amino acids Valine, Glutamic Acid, Histidine.

Acid Derivatives and Amide Properties

I need some help in answering these questions. Full explanations please! 1. The correct order of reactivity of acid derivatives towards nucleophilic attack is: esters > acid anhydrides > amides amides > esters > anhydrides carboxylates > esters > amides anhydrides > esters > amides 2. N-methylacetamide is an example of:

Identifying Organic Compounds

A colorless liquid A (C3H6O) was soluble in water and ether, and had a boiling point of 94-96 degrees Celsius. It decolorized a Br2-CH2Cl2 solution and gave a positive ceric nitrate test. On catalytic hydrogenation it formed Compound B (C3H8O), which did not decolorized the above bromine solution, but did give a positive ceric n

Determining Molecules from Spectral Diagrams

Compound S (C8H16) decolorizes a solution of bromine in carbon tetrachloride. The broadband proton-decoupled 13^C spectrum of S is given in Fig. 9.52. Propose a structure for S. I have attached the actual question from the book as it has Fig. 9.52 in it. There was minor blurring near the end of the chart so just for refere

Assorted State Change Questions

1 Describe the intermolecular force that must be overcome in converting each of the following from a liquid to a gas: A. Liquid O2 B. Mercury C. CH3I (methyl iodide) D. CH3CH2OH (ethanol) 2 Rank the following in order of increasing strength of intermolecular forces in the pure substances. Which do you think

Ceric Nitrate, Beyer, and Tollens Tests

I need some help in finding out what the compounds are from the scenarios: 1. A colorless liquid A (C3H6O) was soluble in water and ether, and had a boiling point of 94-96 degrees C. it decolorized a Br2-CH2Cl2 solution and gave a positive ceric nitrate test. On catalytic hydrogenation it formed Compound B (C3H8O), which

Chemical Differences Among Carbohydrates

1) How can you distinguish chemically between starch and three other carbohydrates (sucrose, glucose, & lactose)? 2) What would you expect to observe when adding one drop of iodine-potassium iodine reagent to each of the four carbohydrates? 3) How does Benedict's Reagent distinguish between carbohydrates? 4) When addi

Which of the following is an INCORRECT description of benzene?

Which of the following is an INCORRECT description of benzene? a. The CCC bond angles are all equal to 120 o b. The 6-membered ring contains alternating double and single carbon-carbon bonds c. The molecule may be drawn as resonance hybrid of 2 Kekule structures d. The molecule is planar Which of the followi