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Organic Chemistry Bonding

Cycloalkanes, Isomers, and Organic Compounds

I) What causes cycloalkanes to have two less hydrogen atoms than similar alkanes that are open chain ones? i) What is the three dimensional structure of methane? Why? ii) Name an isomer of pentane (that is not cyclic), and write down its structure. iii) Name the compounds that are organic: (1) KMnO4 (2) CH3OH (3) C6H6 (4

Alcohol Reaction Questions

1.) Suggest a chemical test that would allow you to distinguish between tert-butyl alcohol and 1 butanol, both of which give a positive ceric nitrate test? 2.) Why are axial and equatorial hydroxyl isomers for 4 tert butylcyclohexanone, but not for cyclohexanol itself? ( I was thinking steric factors?) 3.) I have to bala

16 Proton and Carbon NMRs Explained and Labelled

Please see the diagrams below. I have to identify the compound from the spectra and the steps to get the compound. IR spectral and NMR peaks have to be identified by reference to specific atoms in the final structure. I must also show the formula determination. I am stuck on the completion. On my first page for C5H10O2,(1st

Alcohol Reacions and Comnformations of Cyclic Alcohols

Please see the attached file for diagrams. 1. Choose the best reagent for carrying out the following reactions from the list below. Place the letter of the reagent(s) in the box over the reaction arrow. Only one letter per box (10 points). a. NaH, then CH3I b. NaOCH3, CH3OH c. m-ClC6H4CO3H d. CH3MgBr in ether, then H

Oxidation of Alcohols

I am confused about oxidation in organic chemistry. Why exactly are oxidation reactions one in which a oxygen is inserted into a bond, hydrogen is removed from a bond, and a more electronegative atom is inserted in the bond, replacing a carbon or a hydrogen. But why exactly does oxidation occur in this fashion? Also, I don't

Dehydration of Cyclohexanol Lab Questions

I had a lab on the dehydration of cyclohexanol and I am not trying to understand certain concepts. Here are some questions I am trying to figure out: - The product ratio is Saytzeff > Hofmann for both E1 and E2 reactions. What causes this to be the case for each reaction? I understand slightly that for E2 its steric hindrance

Metals Covalently Bonded to Benzene

I've noticed that my book does not mention metals as a possible substituent for mono-substituted benzenes, but it doesn't begin to explain why. Also I have had trouble finding reasons why online. Specifically I am interested to know why you don't see metals bonded to benzene with a covalent sigma bond. I am not interested in

Analysis of KH / KD and Mechanism Predictions, Chirality and Prochirality

1. Label all prochiral hydrogens (including Re and Si faces) in R-2,4-dimethyl-3-heptanone. 2. Consider the asymmetric deuteration shown below. a. To which face of the prochiral double bond did the deuteriums add to? b. Assign configurations to all chiral centers in the molecule. c. Assign E/Z configuration to the starting

Twelve problems relating to conjugation, dienes and aromaticity.

Please see the attached file for the completely formatted problems. 1. Circle any conjugated portions in the molecule below. 2. Consider the reaction below to answer the following questions: 3. The nucleophile in this reaction is __________. 4. The electrophile in this reaction is __________. 5. The product that r

Precipitation of inorganic (metals) in a water treatment system?

Please help and explain to me clearly......a wastewater contains various cations such as Na, K, Mg, Ca, Ba, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Al; the pH of the wastewater is approx. 6.0 To that wastewater is added H3PO4 (phosphoric acid) in an approximate dose of .00034 gals of H3PO4 per gallon of wastewater. I'm less concerned about the st


We are asked to construct an energy level diagram (molecular orbital) for the molecule SO. We are then asked to comment on the ionic species of SO - bond order, bond distance etc. So far so good. Then we are asked the bond order of SO^4+ (assuming that it is formed). I have laboriously drawn out the whole thing (not attached

Boiling Points

4. The atmospheric pressure in La Grande (683 atmospheric pressure) is significantly lower than that of Portland (760 normal pressure). How would the boiling points of a liquid compare in these two locations? Why? 5. Explain and illustrate why ethanol (molar mass 46g) has a higher boiling point than diethylether (molar mass 74g

combustion, dehydration and oxidation of alcohols

1. Write equations for the combustion, dehydration and oxidation of these alcohols and give the group names of the products. a. C3H7OH b. CH3CHOHCH3 c. (CH3)2COHCH3 2. a. What is the general formula for Alkynes? b. If an alkyne is progressively hydrogenated by an addition process, what is the final product of the process? Us

Chemical Reaction for Vitamins and Lysine

Vitamin b6 is needed in the metabolism of amino acids. When it binds to an enzyme it forms a complex with the e-amino group of lysine, which is a primary amine. What chemical reactions would you do to show that there is a covalent complex with the vitamin and the e-amino group of lysine?

CHEMISTRYChemistry: Dialetric constrants

Explain the following observations. 1. Aziridines, compounds that contain nitrogen in a three-membered ring, undergo pyramidal inversion much more slowly than do other alkylamines. 2. The rate constant for formation of tetraethylammonium iodide form triethylamine and ethyl iodide is more than 800 times greater (at 100 degrees c

Molecular Dipoles

This problem provides an opportunity to evaluate the net molecular dipole of an organic compound.

Explain the Reaction

If you treat an aldehyde wiith HCN you produce a cyanohydrin. For example, H2C=O + HCN equilibrium H2C-C (triple bond) N l O-H However, if you treat formaldehyde (CH2O)


In this problem the tertiary alcohol below was subjected to dehydration with phosphorous oxychloride. The potential products are shown below. The product was isolated and purified by distillation. An NMR of the major product exhibited two triplets only, one centered at 2.1δ and the other at 0.9δ . Indicate the prod


Each word document contains one problem. I need the structures that go along with each spectrum. See attached file for full problem description. 1. Near the peaks the numbers are given, which are the integrations, give the number of protons. Please give a structure for the formula C8H8O, which is consistent with the H NM

Water and Oil

1. Describe the physical properties of oil and water. Discuss why they do not mix. 2. Describe the chemical composition of crude oil and how your simulation mimics an oil spill. 3. Describe at least 4 methods that could be used to attempt to separate the oil and water at home. Based on the four methods postulate which me

Stereochemistry of the Addition of Bromine to Trans-Cinnamic Acid

The question is attached and here are the Directions: Based on the mechanism present, predict the product of this reaction. Highlight the Br-C-C-Br dihedral angle. Is the diehdral angle (0 degrees for sin addition or 180 degrees for anti addition)? Look at the dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the carboxylic

Strain or Steric energy

Please draw the structures neatly and clearly and follow directions. If you have a Chem drawing program (i.e. ChemDraw, Chem3D), I will increase the credit, if not please draw them out by hand. Strain or Steric energy (a) Choose an alkene having cis and trans isomers and draw one of these (give name of alkene also).

Resonance structures and bond lengths and types in molecules

(See attached file for full problem description) a. The structure of 1,3-butadiene is usually written as H2C==CH--CH==CH2. The average bond lengths given are: C--C of 154pm and C==C of 133pm. Explain the fact that the observed value of the distance between the two central carbon atoms in 1,3-butadiene is 146pm. b. Which