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    Oxidation of Alcohols

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    I am confused about oxidation in organic chemistry. Why exactly are oxidation reactions one in which a oxygen is inserted into a bond, hydrogen is removed from a bond, and a more electronegative atom is inserted in the bond, replacing a carbon or a hydrogen. But why exactly does oxidation occur in this fashion?

    Also, I don't understand the reasoning behind the determination of oxidation states of carbon. The instructor told us that carbon must be done for the reactive carbon center. Hydrogen is always +1 because it is less electronegative than carbon. Oxygen is -1 for each bond to carbon. But why?

    How does this tie into Jones oxidations?

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    I am confused about oxidation in organic chemistry. Why exactly are oxidation reactions one in which a oxygen is inserted into a bond, hydrogen is removed from a bond, and a more electronegative atom is inserted in the bond, replacing a carbon or a hydrogen. But why exactly does oxidation occur in this fashion?

    How does this tie into Jones oxidations?
    It might be better to think of oxidation as loss of electrons. Take a look at the Jones' Oxidation. Notice how there is a net loss of 2 electrons from the alcohol as the reaction proceeds? The bottom line is that the alcohol wants to give up electrons and the Cr wants to accept them. The observed structural changes (gain of O and loss of H) are just a consequence of this.

    Also, I don't understand the reasoning behind the determination of oxidation states of carbon. The instructor told us that carbon must be done for the reactive carbon center. Hydrogen is always +1 because it is less electronegative than carbon. Oxygen is -1 for each bond to carbon. But why?
    In CH3OH the oxidation state of C is -2
    C + (4 x 1) + (1 x -2) = 0 so C = -2 (H is assumed to have an oxidation state of 1 and O has an oxidation state of -2).
    After it is oxidized to CH2O the oxidation state of C is 0
    C + (2 x 1) + (1 x -2) = 0 so C = 0
    The oxidation state of C has increased so it has been oxidized.

    After it is oxidized to HCOOH the oxidation state of C is 2
    C + (2 x 1) + (2 x -2) = 0 so C = 2
    Another oxidation has occurred.
    I included some slides from my PowerPoint notes with various oxidations and some pointers as to how to recognize them.

    Jones' Oxidation

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    https://brainmass.com/chemistry/organic-chemistry-bonding/oxidation-alcohols-152451

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