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Cycloalkanes, Isomers, and Organic Compounds

I) What causes cycloalkanes to have two less hydrogen atoms than similar alkanes that are open chain ones?
i) What is the three dimensional structure of methane? Why?
ii) Name an isomer of pentane (that is not cyclic), and write down its structure.
iii) Name the compounds that are organic:
(1) KMnO4
(2) CH3OH
(3) C6H6
(4) PdCl2
(5) CH3CO2H
iv) Are any of these substances organic? Why?
i) Name one structural and one chemical difference between acetylene and ethylene. Give reasons.
ii) What is the formula of 1, 3-butadiene?
iii) Why is benzene much less reactive than 1, 3, 5-cyclohexatriene?
iv) Why is the benzene molecule represented as "a flat cyclohexane with a ring inside?"
v) Why do cis and trans isomeric compounds exhibit different properties?

Solution Preview

i) What causes cycloalkanes to have two less hydrogen atoms than similar alkanes that are open chain ones?
To form the cycloalkane from the open chain alkane, the two ends of the molecule must bond together. In so doing, two hydrogens are lost in order to make the C-C bond.

i) What is the three dimensional structure of methane? Why?
It's in the shape of a tetrahedron. This occurs in order to maximize the bond angles between each C-H bond and reduce steric hindrance between the hydrogens.

ii) Name an isomer of pentane (that is not cyclic), and write down its structure.
CH3
|
CH3-C-CH2-CH3
|
H
This is 2-methylbutane, an isomer of pentane. Notice that it still has five carbons and is fully saturated, as is ...

Solution Summary

This solution provides answers to questions regarding organic compounds and cycloalkanes.

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