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Acid and Base Organic Chemistry

An organic acid is a carbon-based compound with acidic properties, while an organic base is a carbon-based compound with basic properties. Thus, an acid-base reaction in Organic Chemistry draws on the same rules, except that it deals only with carbon-based compounds. So instead of looking at acids such HCl, Organic Chemistry will examine organic acids such as CH3COOH. Other functional groups are also examined, which include but are not limited to alcohols (-OH), carboxyl groups (-COOH) and sulfonic acids (-OSO2H).

A typical acid is one that is a proton donor, while a base is usually a proton acceptor. Thus, by viewing it in this light, the acidity of certain compounds can be measured by the concentration of protons. This measurement is also known as the power of hydrogen, or pH:

pH = -log([H+])

However, since most organic acids are weak acids, then Ka and pKa are values that are also considered in acid-base calculations:

Ka = [H+][A-]/[HA]
While pKa = -log(Ka)

pH and pKa are also related in the following manner:

pH = pKa + log([A-]/[HA])

Thus, understanding the definition of an organic acid and base as well as the relationships between these two entities is crucial to understanding how to interpret these organic reactions no matter how complex.

Electronic theory: observations and devising suitable reaction

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Molecular Motors and Models

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Hazardous Organic Material: Phenol Spill

Describe an incident (fire, spill, explosion, etc) you have experienced (or research one on the Internet, professional journal, or scientific magazine article) that involved a hazardous organic material(s) and required mitigation. The following items must be addressed: A) Describe the incident and identify the hazardous or

Structural formulas, compounds, two-step synthesis

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R or S designation clavulanic acid

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Organic Chemistry: Reaction Equations

Show the reaction equations for : a) Phenylamine in water b) A cool solution of sodium nitrite and a solution of the amine in an ice bath. Moderately concentrated hydrochloric acid is added. c) Add hydrochloric acid to the amine. Then add aqueous sodium hydroxide. d) Add Iodine solution to ethanal e) Add iod

Lab: Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide Solutions

Fill a burette with 50 mL of 0.2M potassium permanganate solution. Add 10 mL of NEW hydrogen peroxide and 2 mL of 6M sulfuric acid to a flask. Titrate the hydrogen peroxide with the KMnO4 solution to the purple endpoint of excess MnO4- ion. Questions: (a) Volume of potassium permanganate used in each titration (mL):5

Problems with Organic Chemistry Questions

Please answer the following problems - include diagrams in the solution. 24.9 What factor determines whether a carbon atom in a compound is chiral? 24.27 Write structural formulas for the following organic compounds: (b) 1,3,5-trichlorocyclohexane (c) 2,3-dimethylpentane (d) 2-bromo-4phenylpentane (e) 3,4,5-trimet

Organic Chemistry: Synthesizing

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Para-position directors and IUPAC

Please see attached 1. 2. Even through the para position is one carbon father from the coarboxyl group than the meta position, p-cyanobenzoic acid is more acidic than m-cyanobenzoic acid. Explain the differences in acidity between p-cyanobenzoic acid and m-cyanobenzoic acid. 3. Explain the differences in acidity betw

Spectrums and reactions

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Monochlorination Products of this Reaction

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Acid and Base Organic Chemistry Example Problems

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Butyric Acid and Hydrazoic Acid

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Fischer Esterification

Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problems. 1. The Fischer esterification is really an example of a. a nucleophilic acyl substitution reaction b. an aldol condensation reaction c. an elimination reaction (either E1 or E2) d. an electrophilic addition reaction e. a conjugated addition reaction


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Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problems. 1. Which one of the following is the least effective method for the synthesis of the compound shown? a. treat trans-4-tert-butylcyclohexanol with sodium acetate b. combine trans-4-tert-butylcyclohexanol and acetic anhydride in the presence of pyridine c.

Recrystallization Process of 1,1-Diphenylethanol

Please see the attached file for the fully formatted problems. 1,1-diphenylethanol I made the Grignard reaction with phenylmagnesiumbromide react with ethyl acetate to give 1,1-diphenylethanol. After drying with sodium sulfate, all in the solution was ether and crude oil solid. After all the ether evaporated or remove by

Diprotic Acids and Solution Equlibria

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Spectrophotometry, Absorbance and Transmittance

1.A portable photometer with a linear response to radiation registered 73.6 μA with a blank solution in the light path. Replacement of the blank with an absorbing solution yielded a response of 24.9 μA. Calculate: a) The percent transmittance of the sample solution. b) The absorbance of the sample solution.

Aromatic Compounds and Electrophilic Substitution

1. Provide structures for these compounds. (a) p-nitrobenzoic acid (b) 3, 5-dimethylcychohexanone (c) N-methyl-2,3-dimethylhexanamide (d) 4-ethyl-2-propyloctanoic acid 3. Order the following compounds in order of increasing reactivity (1 being the most reactive. (a) CH3CONH2 ______ CH3COCl_______ CH3

Molar Absorptivity and Beer's Law

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Lab questions for organic chemistry

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Balancing equations

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Aromatic Alkylation

Given that the PKa of H2SO4 is -9 and that of HNO3 is -1.4, explain why nitration occurs more rapidly in a mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids than in concentrated nitric acid alone. Make sure you use equations and the mechanism of formation of the nitronium ion(NO2+) to support your answer.