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Acid and Base Organic Chemistry

An organic acid is a carbon-based compound with acidic properties, while an organic base is a carbon-based compound with basic properties. Thus, an acid-base reaction in Organic Chemistry draws on the same rules, except that it deals only with carbon-based compounds. So instead of looking at acids such HCl, Organic Chemistry will examine organic acids such as CH3COOH. Other functional groups are also examined, which include but are not limited to alcohols (-OH), carboxyl groups (-COOH) and sulfonic acids (-OSO2H).

A typical acid is one that is a proton donor, while a base is usually a proton acceptor. Thus, by viewing it in this light, the acidity of certain compounds can be measured by the concentration of protons. This measurement is also known as the power of hydrogen, or pH:

pH = -log([H+])

However, since most organic acids are weak acids, then Ka and pKa are values that are also considered in acid-base calculations:

Ka = [H+][A-]/[HA]
While pKa = -log(Ka)

pH and pKa are also related in the following manner:

pH = pKa + log([A-]/[HA])

Thus, understanding the definition of an organic acid and base as well as the relationships between these two entities is crucial to understanding how to interpret these organic reactions no matter how complex.

Electronic theory: observations and devising suitable reaction

1. On the basis of electronic theory, explain the following observations: a. The -N(CH3)2 group is an ortho, para director, and strongly activates the ring, whereas the -N(CH3)3 group is a meta director and deactivates the ring toward electrophilic substitution. b. The -NO2 group is a meta director, and its presence on the

Molecular Motors and Models

See attached 5 questions (related to each other) on molecular motors. I have trouble drawing the model and doing the calculations. 1. The attached table is from the notes. Show that 1 kCal/mOl =418.7 CEU (see attachment for the table). 2. Molecular motors typically generate forces in the range of a few piconewtons. Suppos

TCA Cycle and Glycolysis

Hello, I was hoping someone can explain to me how to follow carbon labels (radioactive 14C) through glycolysis and TCA cycle. For example if C5 or C6 is labeled where will it end up in pyruvate or if its labeled in Oxaloacetate where it ends up after first, second round of TCA cycle etc. I'm uploading a few problems, I need a

Hazardous Organic Material: Phenol Spill

Describe an incident (fire, spill, explosion, etc) you have experienced (or research one on the Internet, professional journal, or scientific magazine article) that involved a hazardous organic material(s) and required mitigation. The following items must be addressed: A) Describe the incident and identify the hazardous or

Structural formulas, compounds, two-step synthesis

See the attached file for the full problems. 1. Write a structural formula for each of the following compounds: a. 2,3-dimethyl-2-pentanol b. 2-methyl-3-penten-1-ol c. m-nitrophenol d. potassium butoxide 2. Name each of the following compounds. 3. Arrange the following compounds in order of increasing acidity, a

Chemical Process for Muscle Cramps

Strenuous exercise produces severe cramps in thighs and pain in biceps. 1) Explain the chemical process that occurred in his muscle cells to cause this discomfort. 2) Explain the chemical reaction that has taken place in the body after exercise. 3) Discuss possible treatments and how these treatments works chemically.

Oxidation Cycle and ATP Production from Glucose Hydrolysis

1. Oxidation of the fatty acid CH3(CH2)18COOH produces_______ molecules of acetyl CoA and goes through the B-oxidation cycle_____ times. Choices are: 1) 10,10 2) 9,10 3) 9,9 4) 10,9 5) 9,8 2.In the chemiosmotic model of oxidative phosphorylation ATP is synthesized as???____ flows through_____synthetase 3.Each mole of ATP s

Drawing structural formulas

Please assist me in drawing structural diagrams for the following: 1. 2-ethyl-3-methyl hexanol 2. N-methyl-N-phenyl butanamide 3. 4,4-dimethylpentanal 4. 3,4-dimethylheptanoic acid 5. 3-amino-3-methyl-l-hexene

Hydrolysis of an Ester

I had a couple questions regarding my lab report i have to complete for this lab. The first is we are required to provide a mechanism for the saponification of methyl propionate, the reagents are 1.) NaOH, H2O and 2.) HCl, H2O, for my final products I got propanoic acid, methanol, and chloride ion, please correct if I'm wrong I

R or S Designation Clavulanic Acid

Please help with the following problem. In clavulanic acid there is a carbon-atom that that has an oxygen-atom, a nitrogen-atom, and a carbon atom attached to it. Please show me how to assign the proper designation, R or S to this carbon atom.

Organic Chemistry: Reaction Equations

Show the reaction equations for : a) Phenylamine in water b) A cool solution of sodium nitrite and a solution of the amine in an ice bath. Moderately concentrated hydrochloric acid is added. c) Add hydrochloric acid to the amine. Then add aqueous sodium hydroxide. d) Add Iodine solution to ethanal e) Add iod

Reaction Equations

a) Show the reaction equation for when sodium carbonate is added to acetic acid b) Show the reaction equation of acetic acid and dilute sulphuric acid. Potassium manganate is also added. c) The reaction of the acid mixture from (b) mixed with ethanol and concentrated H2SO4. d) Show the reaction equation

Chemical Equations and Reactions

Give equations for the reaction of salicylic acid with the following: a) acetyl chloride/pyridine b) methanol/HCl/heat c) sodium bicarbonate, room temperature d) thionyl chloride e) 10% sodium hydroxide, room temperature f) excess sodium hydroxide, reflux g) ammonium hydroxide, room temper

Formation for ethyl acetate and acid-catalyzed

Hello, In a 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask, 10-mL ethanol, 12 mL glacial acetic acid, and 15 drops of concentrated sulfuric acid (18 M), are added together with a boiling stone. Ethyl acetate is distilled. 1 Write the equation for the formation of ethyl acetate. 2 What is the purpose of sulfuric acid? 3 What happ

Analyzing IR spectra

The question reads: Identify the IR characteristic signals that you would expect in each of the following compounds. For every signal provide the approximate wavenumber. See attatched for compounds.

Lab: Analysis of Hydrogen Peroxide Solutions

Fill a burette with 50 mL of 0.2M potassium permanganate solution. Add 10 mL of NEW hydrogen peroxide and 2 mL of 6M sulfuric acid to a flask. Titrate the hydrogen peroxide with the KMnO4 solution to the purple endpoint of excess MnO4- ion. Questions: (a) Volume of potassium permanganate used in each titration (mL):5

Reaction Equations

Please write the reaction equations for: a) Reaction of 2-methyl benzoic acid with dilute sodium hydroxide b) Reaction of 4-chloroaniline with dilute hydrochloric acid c) Reaction of the salt of 2-methyl benzoic acid with strong acid d) Reaction of the salt of 4-chloroaniline with strong base

Acid and Base Chemical Formulas

In each of the following pairs of acids, which would be expected to be stronger, and why? a. p-BrC6H4CO2H or m-BrC6H4CO2H b. CH3CH2CHBrCO2H or CH2BrCH2CH2CO2H

Balanced equations to show the formation

Write balanced equations to show the formation of each of the following compounds. Name the reactants in each case, and show clearly the removal of the water molecule. a) butyl propanoate b) propyl methanoate

Buffering capacity for micromoles of acid

You want a solution that will buffer the addition of either 10 micromoles of acid or 10 micromoles of base. Total buffer concentration is equal to the concentration of the acid plus the concentration of salt of the acid. Which of the following buffers would you use if you wanted to buffer a solution at pH=6.9? a) buffer A w

Aldol Condensation of Aldehydes and Ketones

Giving examples give the mechanisms of Aldol condensation between two molecules of aldehydes and two molecules of ketones. Also show how dehydration reaction leads to the final product of alpha-beta unsaturated ketone/aldehyde.

Question regarding molecules of Acetyl CoA

Olive oil is comprised of 80% oleic acid, CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH. How many molecules of acetyl CoA are produced by catabolism of oleic acid and how many passages of the B-oxidation pathway are needed?

Cyclopentanone and bromine in acetic acid

Write the complete stepwise mechanism for the reaction of cyclopentanone with bromine in acetic acid to give 2-bromocyclopentanone. Show all intermediate structures and all electron flow with arrows.

Carboxylation Reaction

Consider the following info for the questions: When CO2 is bubbled through an ether solution of benzylmagnesium bromide, and the resulting mixture is acidified, phenylacetic acid is produced. Any unreacted benzylmagnesium bromide is converted to toluene in the acidification step. 1. Write the complete reaction sequence fo

Identify the Unknown Liquid

A colorless liquid, bp = 199-201 degrees C, burnes with a yellow, sooty flame. The sodium fusion test proved negative for the presence of halogens, nitrogen, and sulfur. It was not soluble in water, 5% aqueous sodium hydroxide, or 5% hydrochloric acid. However, it dissolved in sulfuric acid with evolution of heat. It did not giv

Give Structures: Identify unknown organic liquids

An unknown organic liquid, A, was found to burn with yellow, sooty flame and give a positive Lucas test (about 5 min). Upon treatment with sodium dichromate-sulfuric acid solution it produced Compound B, which also burned with a yellow, sooty flame. Compound B gave a positive 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine test, but a negative res

Solve: Calculating the Equivalent Weight of an Unknown Substance

An unknown organic carboxylic acid, mp = 139-141 degrees Celsius, is burned with a yellow, sooty flame. The sodium fusion test showed that nitrogen was present. It did not react with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride, but did give a positive test when treated with 5% aqueous ferrous ammonium sulfate solution, acidified with 3 N H2SO4,