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Acid and Base Organic Chemistry

Determining the Rate Constant for Mutarotation

Pretend that you are running the following experiment as outlined attached. 1. Prepare 100 mL of 5.0% (w/v) D-glucose solution. Fill the polarimeter cell with the solution. The cell is 10 cm in length. The polarimeter is set at 586 nm. 2. Zero the polarimeter on air. 3. Measure the optical rotation every five minutes and rec

Equations of reaction

1. Write the equations showing reactions of the amine and the carboxylic acid with the acids and bases added. 2. What are the major disadvantages of using ether as a solvent?

Synthesis of Carbonyl Compounds

1. Devise syntheses for the molecules shown. 2. The spicy flavor of cayenne pepper is due mainly to a substance called capsaicin. See if you can deduce the structure of each intermediate on the basis of the capsaicin laboratory synthesis. See attached file for full problem description.

Feasible Synthetic Routes for Compounds

This problem asks to use equations to outline feasible synthetic routes to the compounds below starting with benzene or toluene and any other necessary aliphatic or inorganic reagents. Assume o- and p- isomers can be separated. a. p-aminobenzoic acid b. m-chloroethylbenzene c. 2-bromo-5-(1-propenyl)aniline See attac

relative orientations of substituents on aromatic rings

One of the first methods that was used for determining the relative orientations of substituents on aromatic rings was devised by Korner. The "Korner Method of Absolute Orientation" was first applied to determine the structures of the three isomeric dibromobenzenes A, B, and C. Each isomer can be converted into one or more mon

Naming Products

Please name the PRODUCTS after each step of the synthesis. See attached file for full problem description.

Concentration of hypothetical triprotic acid

What is the concentration of A^3- ions at equilibrium for a 0.10 M solution of a hypothetical triprotic acid H3A, with Ka1 = 6.0 x 10^-3, Ka2 = 2.0 x 10^-8, Ka3 = 1.0 x 10^-14 ? a) 9.1 x 10 ^ -21 M b) 6.2 x 10 ^ -18 M c) 3.1 x 10 ^ -15 M d) 1.0 x 10 ^ -14 M e) 4.8 x 10 ^ -19 M

Bromination of Toluene

If you treat toluene with 2 equivalences of bromine, you will get aminly 2,4-dibromotoluene and not 2, 6-dibromotoluene. However, you can produce 3, 5-dibromotoluene by treating 4-aminotoluene with 2 equivalences of bromine. Then first treating the product, 4-amino-3,5-dibromotoluene, with HNO2 in H2SO4, and secondly treating th

Acidity-Basicity

This problem set (2 questions, see attached file) provides an opportunity to evaluate organic acids and bases in order to determine the side of a reaction favored at equilibrium.

Extractions

Draw a flow sheet to show how you would separate the components of a mixture containing and acid substance, toluic acid, a basic substance, p-bromo-aniline, and a neutral substance, anthracene.

Conversion of aqueous formaldehyde to methylene glycola

Assuming that you have formaldehyde, CH2O, fully solubilized in water at a temperature of 200 degrees F, is the first order and natural reaction: CH2O + H2O = CH4O2 In otherwords, assuming that the water is pure water, will formaldehyde with 100% certainty become methylene glycol? What things might inhibit the formation

Concentration of formaldehyde and methanol

If there is a measured concentration of formaldehyde and methanol in a 1000L solution of water at temperature = 180 degrees F (open to atmosphere), is there any reason to believe that these compounds will or will not convert to their relative organic acids and no longer be measurable in the form of actual formaldehyde and methan

IR Spectra Used to Determine Structure

In this experiment, I investigated the reactivity of primary and secondary alcohols toward oxidation with sodium hypochlorite (bleach). There were 3 possibilities: 1) only the primary alcohol is oxidized to the aldehyde (carboxylic acid); 2) only the secondary alcohol is oxidized to the ketone, or 3) both alcohols are oxidized.

Major Product of Aqueous Reactions

Predict the major product of the following reaction after aqueous workup, including stereochemistry if appropriate. In some cases, the starting material may be recovered unchanged. CrO3, pyridine and HCl Predict the major product of the following reaction after aqueous workup, including stereochemistry if appropriate. In

Fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid synthesis

Metabolism uses various ways to ensure that 2 opposing pathways do not occur at the same time. For the following pair of pathways list 2 ways (different cell location, allosteric effector, covalent modification, different intermediate, different enzyme, or different means of transport). How are fatty acid oxidation and fat

Combinatorial Synthesis of Esters

The purpose of this experiment was to see which mixtures smelled like wintergreen. The 8 esters and the reactants (alcohols and carboxylic acids) from which they will be made are shown in Table 1. We checked the smell mixtures by using odor. Two, and only two, of the mixtures should smell like wintergreen (they contain met

Combinatorial Synthesis of a Series of Esters

1. Why are the crude ester mixtures washed with aqueous NaHCO3? 2. You wish to test 9 esters for antitumor activity. One and only one of the 9 esters will actually have antitumor activity. You will prepare the esters from an alcohol and an acid as was done in the lab experiment here. However, you will prepare mixtures contain

Acidity of Carboxylic Groups

The two carboxyl groups in 3-chlorohexanedioic acid are not equivalent and thus have different dissociation constants. which carboxylic group is more acidic?

Calculating OH- of Aqueous Solutions

Calculate OH- of each aqueous solution using the following H3o+ a naoh 1.0 X 10-12m b 6.0 X 10-4M c milk of magnesia 1.0 X 10-9M d stomach acid 5.2 X 10-2M. Calculate the oh- of each aqueous solution with the following H30+ A baking soda 1.0 X 10-8M B orange juice 2.0 X 10-4 C milk 5.0 X 10-7 D bleach 4.8 X 10-12.

Separation Of An Acid And A Neutral Substance

Two questions need to be answered by using the attached document. #1. What is a good hypothesis? #2. How did you come to that conclusion about your hypothesis? This exercise demonstrates how solvent extraction techniques can be applied effectively to problems that require the separation of mixtures of organic acids, base

Variation of pKa values among benzoic acids

A) Four benzoic acids are in the attached file along with four pKa values. Assign a pKa to each acid, and briefly explain the basis for your order. b) While o-nitrobenzoic acid and p-nitrobenzoic acid differ significantly in pKa (as seen in part a), o-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol do not; their pKa's are essentially the same

2-methyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione structures and reactions

Using 2-methyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione, shown in attached file, a) write the structures of all possible enol forms b) write the product of reaction with excess D2O and catalytic amounts of acid c) write the product of reaction with one mole of Br2 in acetic acid d) write the product of reaction with formaldehyde [methanal] wit

Volume and pressure problems

6. One of the treatments for gangrene and "the bends," is hyperbaric oxygenation. This occurs in a chamber in which oxygen is used at higher-than-normal pressures. How many grams of oxygen are required to fill a 4.50 x 103 liter hyperbaric chamber at a pressure of 225 cm Hg and at 62° F? If the same quantity of oxygen was pumpe

Formation of para-toluene sulfonic acid

Write a complete mechanism for the formation of para-toluene sulfonic acid. Clearly show the formation of the actual electrophile and all resonance structures of the intermediate hybrid. Identify the most stable resonance structures. (See attachment for full description of the problem)

Organic chemistry problems

1.What is the change in pH when 0.005 moles of HCl is added to 0.100 L of a buffer solution that is 0.100 M in CH3CO2H and 0.100 M NaCH3CO2? The Ka for acetic acid is 1.8 x 10 -5. 2. What is the resulting pH when 0.005 moles of KOH is added to 0.100 L of a buffer solution that is 0.100 M in H2PO4- and 0.100 M HPO4 2- and the

Naming compounds, formulas and reactions

1. Give The name for each of the following compounds (numbers are small) A: NiSO4 B: Ca (NO2)2 C: SO2 D: Fe (C1O)3 2. Give the Formula for each of the following compounds A: Lithium Iodate B: Cupric Chloride C: Lead (IV) Oxide D: Zinc Sulfite 3. Balance the following reactions A: Na2CO3 + HC1 -------->