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Acid and Base Organic Chemistry

Variation of pKa values among benzoic acids

A) Four benzoic acids are in the attached file along with four pKa values. Assign a pKa to each acid, and briefly explain the basis for your order. b) While o-nitrobenzoic acid and p-nitrobenzoic acid differ significantly in pKa (as seen in part a), o-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol do not; their pKa's are essentially the same

2-methyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione structures and reactions

Using 2-methyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione, shown in attached file, a) write the structures of all possible enol forms b) write the product of reaction with excess D2O and catalytic amounts of acid c) write the product of reaction with one mole of Br2 in acetic acid d) write the product of reaction with formaldehyde [methanal] wit

Volume and pressure problems

6. One of the treatments for gangrene and "the bends," is hyperbaric oxygenation. This occurs in a chamber in which oxygen is used at higher-than-normal pressures. How many grams of oxygen are required to fill a 4.50 x 103 liter hyperbaric chamber at a pressure of 225 cm Hg and at 62° F? If the same quantity of oxygen was pumpe

Formation of para-toluene sulfonic acid

Write a complete mechanism for the formation of para-toluene sulfonic acid. Clearly show the formation of the actual electrophile and all resonance structures of the intermediate hybrid. Identify the most stable resonance structures. (See attachment for full description of the problem)

Organic chemistry problems

1.What is the change in pH when 0.005 moles of HCl is added to 0.100 L of a buffer solution that is 0.100 M in CH3CO2H and 0.100 M NaCH3CO2? The Ka for acetic acid is 1.8 x 10 -5. 2. What is the resulting pH when 0.005 moles of KOH is added to 0.100 L of a buffer solution that is 0.100 M in H2PO4- and 0.100 M HPO4 2- and the

Naming compounds, formulas and reactions

1. Give The name for each of the following compounds (numbers are small) A: NiSO4 B: Ca (NO2)2 C: SO2 D: Fe (C1O)3 2. Give the Formula for each of the following compounds A: Lithium Iodate B: Cupric Chloride C: Lead (IV) Oxide D: Zinc Sulfite 3. Balance the following reactions A: Na2CO3 + HC1 -------->

Structure of Leucine

See the attached file. Choose a structure from the list provided below that best fits each of the following descriptions. Place the letter of the structure in the blank to the left of the description. There is only one correct answer for each question. (see attachment for full description of problems) a. Starch b. Cellulo

Categorization of sugar and steroids

(See attached file for full problem descriptions) A. Categorize the attached sugar diagram as D or L. Draw its Haworth structure as the beta anomer. B. Draw a triglyceride with a chiral carbon which contains two molecules of stearic acid (18 carbons) and one molecule of oleic acid (18 carbons, one double bond at C9). Circ

Elimination reaction

a. Comment of the fact that erythro-2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoic acid undergoes elimination by an E1 pathway in water solvent, but by and E2 pathway when acetone is used as the solvent. b. A benzylic carbonation is generated under the water solvent would the presence of a para CH3O- group on the benzene ring increase or dec

Carboxylic acid and Fischer esterification

The reaction of carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of acid is termed Fischer esterification. (See attachment for diagram). 52. The nucleophile in this reaction is _______. 53. Compound C functions as ______ in this reaction. a) a base scavenger b) a solvent c) a catalyst d) a neutralizer 54. Fischer est

Organic Chemistry: Synthesizing Compounds

Please answer the following questions. Draw the synthesizing of the compounds. 1. Starting with toluene, prepare 2-bromo-4-nitrotoluene. 2. Starting with toluene, prepare 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid. 3. Starting from benzene, prepare p=chlorostyrene. 4. p-Bromotoluene reacts with potassium amide to give a mixture of m- and

Finding unknown compounds

11. A low-melting solid A was isolated, which combustion analysis showed had composition C9H10O. The substance gave a precipitate when treated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution. Furthermore, when reacted with iodoform reagent, a yellow precipitate of CHI3 was observed. Acidification of the alkaline solution from the iodo

Stretching Vibration in Alcohols and Amides

Please help with these questions on stretching vibration: 5. The antisymmetric -CH2-CO-O- stretching vibration in carboxylic acids is heavily mixed with the in-plane bending mode of the O-H group. In alcohols these two vibrations seldom show evidence of mechanical coupling. Explain. 8. The hydroxylamine I can be oxidized

Solving for pH of a Buffer

(a) What is the pH of a buffer prepared by combining 25mL of 0.1M nitrous acid with 25mL of 0.1M sodium nitrite? (b) Using an ice chart, calculate the pH of a buffer made by combining 5mL of 0.135M benzoic acid and 25mL of 0.15M sodium benzoate. (c) Using the Hendersen-Hasselbach equation, solve part B. How do your answers

Synthesis of cyclic carboxylic acid anhydrides

I am having trouble understanding why when maelic acid is heated to about 100 C it forms maelic anhydride but fumaric acid requires a much higher temp 250-300 before it dehydrates. Then in addition it only forms maleic anhydride?

Amines Acidification with Ammonia

If you add 15 drops of 6M HCl (a source of H+) to a mixture of 10 drops of 6 M ammonia solution and 1 dropperful of demineralized water, what would the following be: 1) pH 2) solubility 3) observed chemical reactions that would occur If you were to re-basify the solution by adding 20 drops of 6 M NaOH (which is a source of

Amines, demineralized water, and triethylamine

What is the pH of 10 drops of 6M ammonia solution in a dropperful of demineralized water? How does the reaction between ammonia and water explain the measurement of the pH? What is the pH of 10 drops of triethylamine in a dropperful of demineralized water? How does the reaction between triethylamine and water explain th

Aspirin, salicylic acid

1. When making aspirin, if you had 3 g of salicylic acid, what would the moles of salicylic acid used be? How would you calculate that? 2. What would the theoretical yield in moles be and how would you calculate that? 3. What would the theoretical yield in grams be and how would you calculate that?

Separating a 1:1 Mixture of Solid Sugar & Solid Sodium Benzoate

Assuming that sugar is soluble in water and not most organic solvents, list the steps in order that you would take for separating a 1:1 mixture of solid sugar and solid sodium benzoate. Your available reagents (not all of which have to be used) are: concentrated HCl, 1M NaOH, Et2O, H2O, and Na2SO4.

Organic Chemistry and Products of Reaction

(See attached file for full problem description) 7. which of the following alochols would not undergo a color change from orange to green with chromic acid? 8. predict the products of the reaction 9. Calculate the extinction coefficient of compound X given the following information: patchlength: 1cm, concetration 2.0*

Organic Chemistry in Aromatic Structures

(See attached file for full problem description) 3. Sulfuric acid would dehydrate which of these alcohols fastest (identical reaction conditions for all)? 4. Which cation is not aromatic? 5. Which methods below will furnish 1-hexanol? 6. Reduction of a triple bound to a double bond having a cis geometry can be accomp

Grignard Reagents and Carbonyl Compounds

3. A novice chemist wishes to prepare 1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexanediol from the compound shown below. He wishes to use an appropriate Grignard reagent in the synthesis. Was the chemist successful? Explain why or why not. (see attached file for diagram) 4. Synthesize the following compounds using the indicated starting materials.

Solubility in hexane

Is methanol soluble in hexane? Why or why not? Is 1-propanol soluble in hexane? Why or why not? What is the sketched formula for ethyl methyl ester and is it an isomer of butanoic acid? If not, what is the isomer of butanoic acid?

Stretching Vibration Calculations

I need some help with these acid and base chemistry questions. 1. The Anti-symmetric -CH2-CO-O Stretching Vibration in carboxylic acid is heavily mixed with in plane bending mode of the OH group. In alcohol these two vibrations seldom show evidence of mechanical coupling. Explain. 2. Conjugation of the functional group i

Acid and base: Structures, Reactions, and NMR Spectrums

1. If 3-bromo-1-propanol is treated with NaOH, a compound of molecular formula C3H6O is formed. Suggest a structure for this product. 2. What product(s) would you expect to form when tetrahydrofuran is treated with excess hydroiodic acid (HI)? 3. Write a suitable mechanism for the cleavage of butyl isopropyl ether with HI

Hydration and Hydrogenation Reactions

Give and name the products when 3-t-butyl 2,4-dimethyl 1-hexene reacts with the following (assume the proper catalysts are present): 1) Water 2) Hydrogen gas