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Acid and Base Organic Chemistry

Separation of Amines and Carboxylic Acids Using Extraction

Initially have a sample of a water-insoluble, neutral organic compound dissolved in 50 mL methylene chloride that may be contaminated with: -Organic carboxylic acid and/or -Organic amine base The organic neutral compound will be a solid while the acid/base impurities can either be solids o

Preparation of Sulfaniliamide: Chlorosulfonation Step

1) What happens when chlorosulfonic acid comes in contact with water? 2) How will you safely destroy any residual of chlorosulfonic acid remaining on your glassware? 3) Why do experimenter says "The reaction is most easily controlled when acetanilide is in the form of a hard cake, the dried solid is melted, as the melt coo

pH of the HBrO and NaBrO mixture

11. The Ka of HBrO is 2.5 x 10-9 When eql volumes of 0.1 M HbrO and 0.1 M NaBrO are mixed the pH of the solution will be A. Between 0 and 1 B. Between 4 and 5 C. Approximately = 7 D. Between 8 and 9 E. Between 9 and 10 Justify your answer with a calculation .......................................................

pH Indicators / Dilution (NaOH)

Scenario: You took 7 test tubes. In #1 you mixed 5ml of 0.1M NaOH and 5ml of H2O together. In the other 6 test tubes, you added 9ml of H2O. You took test tube #1 (with 5ml 0.1M NaOH and 5ml H2O) and added 1ml to test tube #2. Take test tube #2 and add 1ml to test tube #3. take test tube #3 and add 1ml to test tube #4 and so o

Synthesis of Sulfanilamide: Acetylation of Aniline

1) Why is an acetyl group added to aniline (making acetanilide) and then removed to regenerate the amine group in sulfanilamide? 2) "Dissolve 5.0 g (0.054 mol) of aniline in 135 mL of water and 4.5 mL (0.054 mol) of concentrated of hydrochloric acid; if the solution is colored, filter it by suction through a pad of decolorizing

Organic compounds in household items

I have been trying to figure this out and I am very confused. Here is my problem. Find two or more products in the home that contain organic molecules. From these products, make a list of 10 organic compounds present in the products. For each compound names identify a functional group with compounds would contain. Then, based

pH Indicators for Solutions

Scenario: You took 7 test tubes. In one you mixed 5ml of 0.1M HCI and mixed 5ml of water together. You add 9ml of water to the other 6 test tubes. If you take the original test tube (the one that you mixed 5ml of 0.1M HCI and 5ml of water) and put 1ml into test tube #2. If you took test tube #2 and put 1ml into test tube #3 a

Hypochlorite Oxidation of Methyl Ketones ( Haloform Reaction )

I am reacting Acetophenone with bleach in excess to form benzoic acid and chloroform. During the reaction Sodium sulfite was used to detroy any unreacted bleach. I extracted the mixture of acetophene and bleach with 1.0 ml ether, after heating the solution and adding sodium sulfite. The reaction mixture was then acidfied add

Freidel Craft Reaction: Paraformaldehyde and Mesitylene

1) What is the number of moles of formic acid and water in 4.5 mL 95% formic acid? Assume percent is by weight and the density is 1.25 g/mL. 2) What is the difference between paraformaldehyde and formaldehyde? Please explain it in detail. 3) What are the dangers involved in using formic acid and paraformaldehyde? 4) Show the

Hypochlorite Oxidation of an Alcohol: Cyclohexanone

Basically in this experiment, we took some cyclohexanol and reacted it with hypochlorite to form cycohexanone. 1.)In this experiment, why is a solution of sodium bisulfite added to the reaction product mixture? Write a reaction to account for what is happening. Is the Bisulfite ion acting as an oxidizing or reducing agent?

An Equilibrium Problem

C2H5CO2H(l) + C3H7OH(l) ---> C2H5COOC3H7(l) + H2O(l) 18.5 mL propanoic acid are mixed with 19.0 mL n-propanol to produce n-propyl propanoate when heated and distilled. At room temperature, the equilibrium constant, Keq is approximately 3. Calculate the number of moles of reactants and products expected in the equilibrium

10 Questions About Reactions of Carbonyl Compounds

The reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol in the presence of acid is termed Fischer esterification. 1) the nucleophile in this reaction is: _________ 2) compound C functions as ____________ in the reaction a) neutralizer b) catalyst c) solvent d) base scavenger 3) Fischer esterification is an exampl

Percent Recoveries in Recrystallization Lab Experiment

I have a chemistry problem. In lab we did the experiment Recrystallization. I would like to know if my values that I got in the laboratory are sensible and my percentage recovery. The mass of my impure aspirin was 0.250mg. My volume of solvent used for my impure aspirin was 3.25ml. I got this value from my 2.50ml of water used a

Methane and Methanol Difference

The difference between methane and methanol is an -OH group replacement of a H group. What difference does the -OH group make in this case? Whats the potential for exposure, the most likely exposure routes, and the toxicity effects with it?

Reduction Mechanisms for Formadehyde

Given the following: methanoic acid (CH2O2) + heat + reduction = CH2O (formaldeyhde vapor) ethanoic acid (C2H4O2) + heat + reduction = CH3O2 (acetaldehyde vapor) 1) Is it reasonable to assume that these aqueous organic acids when heated to vapor will in fact lose an oxygen and convert to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde vapo

Why Do I Require More CaCO3 to Raise pH than Predicted?

If you can remember back to a discussion and inquiry we exchanged last week concerning the use of sodium carbonate vs. calcium carbonate. If you'll recall we were theorizing as to why differing amounts of carbonate in a titration experiment were needed to raise the pH of a solution from 4.0 to 5.0. When we assumed 100% solubi

Mass of Carbonates Needed to Raise Solution pH One Unit

An actual lab titration of a mildly acidic process water at a pH of 4.0 requires 0.9 grams/liter of Na2CO3 to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.0; re-running the titration but this time using CaCO3 requires 2.2 grams/liter of CaCO3 to raise the process water pH from 4.0 to 5.0...essentially a 2.25X difference. If we assume these tit

Predominant Organic Acids Present in Softwoods such as Pine

I have a wood chemistry course in which we are asked to explain the hierarchy of the organic wood acids present in softwood species like pine or spruce. Could you please offer a few other possible organic acids that might be present in softwoods? I am only really interested in the predominant acids.

Organic Acids vs. Aldehydes vs. Alcohols vs. Alkanes

1) When organic acids are subjected to continuing increases in temperature, and depending on the acid itself, is it reasonable to assume that organic acids convert first to aldehydes, then to alcohols, then to alkanes given increasing temperature? It is also a fair assumption that condensing of these compounds would occur in the

Determining the Rate Constant for Mutarotation

Pretend that you are running the following experiment as outlined attached. 1. Prepare 100 mL of 5.0% (w/v) D-glucose solution. Fill the polarimeter cell with the solution. The cell is 10 cm in length. The polarimeter is set at 586 nm. 2. Zero the polarimeter on air. 3. Measure the optical rotation every five minutes and rec

Extractions

Draw a flow sheet to show how you would separate the components of a mixture containing and acid substance, toluic acid, a basic substance, p-bromo-aniline, and a neutral substance, anthracene.

Conversion of aqueous formaldehyde to methylene glycola

Assuming that you have formaldehyde, CH2O, fully solubilized in water at a temperature of 200 degrees F, is the first order and natural reaction: CH2O + H2O = CH4O2 In otherwords, assuming that the water is pure water, will formaldehyde with 100% certainty become methylene glycol? What things might inhibit the formation

IR Spectra Used to Determine Structure

In this experiment, I investigated the reactivity of primary and secondary alcohols toward oxidation with sodium hypochlorite (bleach). There were 3 possibilities: 1) only the primary alcohol is oxidized to the aldehyde (carboxylic acid); 2) only the secondary alcohol is oxidized to the ketone, or 3) both alcohols are oxidized.

Fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid synthesis

Metabolism uses various ways to ensure that 2 opposing pathways do not occur at the same time. For the following pair of pathways list 2 ways (different cell location, allosteric effector, covalent modification, different intermediate, different enzyme, or different means of transport). How are fatty acid oxidation and fat

Combinatorial Synthesis of Esters

The purpose of this experiment was to see which mixtures smelled like wintergreen. The 8 esters and the reactants (alcohols and carboxylic acids) from which they will be made are shown in Table 1. We checked the smell mixtures by using odor. Two, and only two, of the mixtures should smell like wintergreen (they contain met

Combinatorial Synthesis of a Series of Esters

1. Why are the crude ester mixtures washed with aqueous NaHCO3? 2. You wish to test 9 esters for antitumor activity. One and only one of the 9 esters will actually have antitumor activity. You will prepare the esters from an alcohol and an acid as was done in the lab experiment here. However, you will prepare mixtures contain

Separation Of An Acid And A Neutral Substance

Two questions need to be answered by using the attached document. #1. What is a good hypothesis? #2. How did you come to that conclusion about your hypothesis? This exercise demonstrates how solvent extraction techniques can be applied effectively to problems that require the separation of mixtures of organic acids, base